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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended January 2, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from   ___________ to ___________               
Commission File Number 001-05224
STANLEY BLACK & DECKER, INC.
(Exact Name Of Registrant As Specified In Its Charter)
Connecticut 06-0548860
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
1000 STANLEY DRIVE
NEW BRITAIN, CT 06053
(Address of Principal Executive Offices and Zip Code)

                Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code 860 225-5111

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title Of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name Of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock$2.50 Par Value per ShareSWKNew York Stock Exchange
Corporate UnitsSWTNew York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant To Section 12(g) Of The Act:
None 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  þ    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.        Yes  ¨    No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  þ    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    
Yes  þ    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large Accelerated Filerþ  Accelerated Filer¨
Non-Accelerated Filer
¨  
  Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  þ
As of June 26, 2020, the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $21.8 billion based on the New York Stock Exchange closing price for such shares on that date. On February 15, 2021, the registrant had 160,893,004 shares of common stock outstanding. 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2021 annual meeting of shareholders (the "2021 Proxy Statement") are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. The 2021 Proxy Statement will be filed with the U.S. Securities Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.
SIGNATURES
EX-4.11
EX-10.6
EX-10.7
EX-10.17
EX-10.28
EX-10.29
EX-21
EX-23
EX-24
EX-31.1(a)
EX-31.1(b)
EX-32.1
EX-32.2

2


FORM 10-K
PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. ("the Company") was founded in 1843 by Frederick T. Stanley and incorporated in Connecticut in 1852. In March 2010, the Company completed a merger ("the Merger") with The Black & Decker Corporation (“Black & Decker”), a company founded by S. Duncan Black and Alonzo G. Decker and incorporated in Maryland in 1910. At that time, the Company changed its name from The Stanley Works to Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. The Company’s principal executive office is located at 1000 Stanley Drive, New Britain, Connecticut 06053 and its telephone number is (860) 225-5111.

The Company is a diversified global provider of hand tools, power tools and related accessories, engineered fastening systems and products, services and equipment for oil & gas and infrastructure applications, commercial electronic security and monitoring systems, healthcare solutions, and automatic doors, with 2020 consolidated annual revenues of $14.5 billion. Approximately 61% of the Company’s 2020 revenues were generated in the United States, with the remainder largely from Europe (19%), emerging markets (11%) and Canada (5%).

The Company continues to execute a growth and acquisition strategy that involves industry, geographic and customer diversification to foster sustainable revenue, earnings and cash flow growth. The Company remains focused on delivering above-market organic growth with margin expansion by leveraging its proven and long-standing Stanley Black & Decker Operating Model (“SBD Operating Model”) which has continually evolved over the past 15 years as times have changed. At the center of the SBD Operating Model is the concept of the interrelationship between people and technology, which intersect and interact with the other key elements: Performance Resiliency, Extreme Innovation, Operations Excellence and Extraordinary Customer Experience. Each of these elements co-exists synergistically with the others in a systems-based approach. The Company will leverage the SBD Operating Model to continue making strides towards achieving its vision of delivering top-quartile financial performance, becoming known as one of the world’s leading innovators and elevating its commitment to social responsibility.

The above strategy has also resulted in approximately $11.5 billion of acquisitions since 2002 (excluding the Merger), which was enabled by strong cash flow generation and increased debt capacity. In recent years, the Company completed the acquisitions of Consolidated Aerospace Manufacturing, LLC ("CAM") for approximately $1.4 billion, International Equipment Solutions Attachments Group ("IES Attachments") for approximately $654 million, Nelson Fastener Systems ("Nelson") for approximately $424 million, the Tools business of Newell Brands ("Newell Tools") for approximately $1.8 billion, and the Craftsman® brand from Sears Holdings Corporation ("Sears Holdings") for an estimated cash purchase price of approximately $937 million on a discounted basis. The CAM acquisition further diversifies the Company's presence in the industrial markets and expands its portfolio of specialty fasteners in the aerospace and defense markets. The IES Attachments acquisition further diversified the Company's presence in the industrial markets, expanded its portfolio of attachment solutions and provided a meaningful platform for continued growth. The Nelson acquisition was complementary to the Company's product offerings, enhanced its presence in the general industrial end markets, and expanded its portfolio of highly-engineered fastening solutions. The Newell Tools acquisition, which included the industrial cutting, hand tool and power tool accessory brands IRWIN® and LENOX®, enhanced the Company’s position within the global tools & storage industry and broadened the Company’s product offerings and solutions to customers and end users, particularly within power tool accessories. The Craftsman acquisition provided the Company with the rights to develop, manufacture and sell Craftsman®-branded products in non-Sears Holdings channels.
In January 2019, the Company acquired a 20 percent interest in MTD Holdings Inc. ("MTD"), a privately held global manufacturer of outdoor power equipment, for $234 million in cash.  Under the terms of the agreement, the Company has the option to acquire the remaining 80 percent of MTD beginning on July 1, 2021. The investment in MTD increases the Company's presence in the greater than $20 billion lawn and garden segment and enables the two companies to work together to pursue revenue and cost opportunities, improve operational efficiency, and introduce new and innovative products for professional and residential outdoor equipment customers, utilizing each company's respective portfolios of strong brands.

In May 2019, the Company sold its Sargent and Greenleaf mechanical locks business within the Security segment for net proceeds of $79 million. In February 2017, the Company completed the sale of the majority of its mechanical security businesses, which included the commercial hardware brands of Best Access, phi Precision and GMT, for net proceeds of approximately $717 million. These divestitures allowed the Company to invest in other areas of the Company that fit into its long-term growth strategy.
The Company has also divested several smaller businesses in recent years that did not fit into its long-term strategic objectives.

3


Refer to Note E, Acquisitions and Investments, and Note T, Divestitures, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 for further discussion.
The Company’s growth and acquisition strategy is interdependent with its social responsibility strategy focused on workforce upskilling, product innovation, and environmental preservation including mitigating the impacts of climate change. These are core business issues that ensure the long-term viability of the Company, its customers, suppliers, and communities. The Company has established environmental, social and corporate governance targets embodied in its 2030 Corporate Social Responsibility (“CSR”) strategy that include upskilling 10 million makers and creators, enhancing 500 million lives through purpose driven product innovation, becoming carbon-positive, landfill-free, and reducing water use in water stressed and scarce areas. The carbon positive target includes third-party approved science-based targets to reduce absolute scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions by greater than 100% by 2030, and to reduce supply chain emissions by 35%. The Company’s CSR strategy considers all life-cycle stages including material procurement from supply chain partners, product design, manufacturing, distribution and transportation, product use, product service and end-of-life. Refer to section "Human Capital Management" for additional information regarding the Company's commitment to upskilling its employees and improving diversity, equity and inclusion.
Description of the Business
The Company’s operations are classified into three reportable business segments, which also represent its operating segments: Tools & Storage, Industrial and Security. All segments have significant international operations and are exposed to translational and transactional impacts from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
Additional information regarding the Company’s business segments and geographic areas is incorporated herein by reference to the material captioned “Business Segment Results” in Item 7 and Note P, Business Segments and Geographic Areas, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.
Tools & Storage
The Tools & Storage segment is comprised of the Power Tools and Equipment ("PTE") and Hand Tools, Accessories & Storage ("HTAS") businesses. Annual revenues in the Tools & Storage segment were $10.3 billion in 2020, representing 71% of the Company’s total revenues.
The PTE business includes both professional and consumer products. Professional products include professional grade corded and cordless electric power tools and equipment including drills, impact wrenches and drivers, grinders, saws, routers and sanders, as well as pneumatic tools and fasteners including nail guns, nails, staplers and staples, concrete and masonry anchors. Consumer products include corded and cordless electric power tools sold primarily under the BLACK+DECKER® brand, lawn and garden products, including hedge trimmers, string trimmers, lawn mowers, edgers and related accessories, and home products such as hand-held vacuums, paint tools and cleaning appliances.
The HTAS business sells hand tools, power tool accessories and storage products. Hand tools include measuring, leveling and layout tools, planes, hammers, demolition tools, clamps, vises, knives, saws, chisels and industrial and automotive tools. Power tool accessories include drill bits, screwdriver bits, router bits, abrasives, saw blades and threading products. Storage products include tool boxes, sawhorses, medical cabinets and engineered storage solution products.
The segment sells its products to professional end users, distributors, retail consumers and industrial customers in a wide variety of industries and geographies. The majority of sales are distributed through retailers, including home centers, mass merchants, hardware stores, and retail lumber yards, as well as third-party distributors and a direct sales force.
Industrial
The Industrial segment is comprised of the Engineered Fastening and Infrastructure businesses. Annual revenues in the Industrial segment were $2.3 billion in 2020, representing 16% of the Company’s total revenues.
The Engineered Fastening business primarily sells highly engineered components such as fasteners, fittings and various engineered products, which are designed for specific application across multiple verticals. The product lines include externally threaded fasteners, blind rivets and tools, blind inserts and tools, drawn arc weld studs and systems, engineered plastic and mechanical fasteners, self-piercing riveting systems, precision nut running systems, micro fasteners, high-strength structural fasteners, axel swage, latches, heat shields, pins, and couplings. The business sells to customers in the automotive, manufacturing, electronics, construction, and aerospace industries, amongst others, and its products are distributed through direct sales forces and, to a lesser extent, third-party distributors.

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The Infrastructure business consists of the Attachment Tools and Oil & Gas product lines. Attachment Tools sells hydraulic tools and high quality, performance-driven heavy equipment attachment tools for off-highway applications. Oil & Gas sells and rents custom pipe handling, joint welding and coating equipment used in the construction of large and small diameter pipelines, and provides pipeline inspection services. The Infrastructure business sells to the oil and natural gas pipeline industry and other industrial customers. The products and services are primarily distributed through a direct sales force and, to a lesser extent, third-party distributors.
Security
The Security segment is comprised of the Convergent Security Solutions ("CSS") and Mechanical Access Solutions ("MAS") businesses. Annual revenues in the Security segment were $1.9 billion in 2020, representing 13% of the Company’s total revenues.
The CSS business designs, supplies and installs commercial electronic security systems and provides electronic security services, including alarm monitoring, video surveillance, fire alarm monitoring, systems integration and system maintenance. Purchasers of these systems typically contract for ongoing security systems monitoring and maintenance at the time of initial equipment installation. The business also sells healthcare solutions, which include asset tracking, infant protection, pediatric protection, patient protection, wander management, fall management, and emergency call products. The CSS business sells to consumers, retailers, educational, financial and healthcare institutions, as well as commercial, governmental and industrial customers. The MAS business primarily sells automatic doors to commercial customers. Products for both businesses are sold predominantly on a direct sales basis.
Other Information
Competition
The Company competes on the basis of its reputation for product quality, its well-known brands, its commitment to customer service, its strong customer relationships, the breadth of its product lines, its innovative products and customer value propositions.
The Company encounters active competition in the Tools & Storage and Industrial segments from both larger and smaller companies that offer the same or similar products and services. Certain large customers offer private label brands (“house brands”) that compete across a wide spectrum of the Company’s Tools & Storage segment product offerings. Competition in the Security segment is generally fragmented via both large international companies and regional providers. Competition tends to be based primarily on price and the quality and comprehensiveness of services offered to customers.
Major Customers
A significant portion of the Company’s Tools & Storage products are sold to home centers and mass merchants in the U.S. and Europe. A consolidation of retailers both in North America and abroad has occurred over time. While this consolidation and the domestic and international expansion of these large retailers have provided the Company with opportunities for growth, the increasing size and importance of individual customers creates a certain degree of exposure to potential sales volume loss. Lowe's accounted for approximately 15%, 15% and 12% of the Company's consolidated net sales in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, while The Home Depot accounted for approximately 12% and 10% of the Company's consolidated net sales in 2020 and 2019, respectively. No other customer exceeded 10% of the Company's consolidated net sales in 2020, 2019 or 2018.

Working Capital
The Company continues to practice the five operating principles encompassed by Operations Excellence, one element of the SBD Operating Model, which work in concert: sales and operations planning, operational lean, complexity reduction, global supply management, order-to-cash excellence, the application of Industry 4.0 and upskilling the Company's workforce. The Company develops standardized business processes and system platforms to reduce costs and provide scalability. The continued focus on the operating principles above have been instrumental in reducing working capital and creating significant opportunities to generate incremental free cash flow (defined as cash flow from operations less capital and software expenditures). Working capital turns were 10.4 at the end of 2020, up 0.6 turns from 2019, reflecting the strong revenue performance in 2020. The Company plans to continue leveraging Operations Excellence to generate ongoing improvements, both in the existing business and future acquisitions, in working capital turns, cycle times, complexity reduction and customer service levels, with a long-term goal of sustaining 10+ working capital turns.
Raw Materials
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The Company’s products are manufactured using resins, ferrous and non-ferrous metals including, but not limited to, steel, zinc, copper, brass, aluminum and nickel. The Company also purchases components such as batteries, motors, and electronic components to use in manufacturing and assembly operations along with resin-based molded parts. The raw materials required are procured globally and generally available from multiple sources at competitive prices. As part of the Company's Enterprise Risk Management, the Company has implemented a supplier risk mitigation strategy in order to identify and address any potential supply disruption or material scarcity issues associated with commodities, components, finished goods and critical services. The Company does not anticipate difficulties in obtaining supplies for any raw materials or energy used in its production processes.
Patents and Trademarks
No business segment is solely dependent, to any significant degree, on patents, licenses, franchises or concessions, and the loss of one or several of these patents, licenses, franchises or concessions would not have a material adverse effect on any of the Company's businesses. The Company owns numerous patents, none of which individually is material to the Company's operations as a whole. These patents expire at various times over the next 20 years. The Company holds licenses, franchises and concessions, none of which individually or in the aggregate are material to the Company's operations as a whole. These licenses, franchises and concessions vary in duration, but generally run from one to 40 years.
The Company has numerous trademarks that are used in its businesses worldwide. In the Tools & Storage segment, significant trademarks include STANLEY®, BLACK+DECKER®, DEWALT®, FLEXVOLT®, IRWIN®, LENOX®, CRAFTSMAN®, PORTER-CABLE®, BOSTITCH®, FATMAX®, Powers®, Guaranteed Tough®, MAC TOOLS®, PROTO®, Vidmar®, FACOM®, Expert®, LISTA® and the yellow & black color scheme for power tools and accessories. Significant trademarks in the Industrial segment include STANLEY®, CRC®, NELSON®, LaBounty®, Dubuis®, CribMaster®, POP®, Avdel®, Heli-Coil®, Tucker®, NPR®, Spiralock®, PALADIN®, CAM®, Bristol Industries®, Voss™, Aerofit™, EA Patten™, Integra®, Optia®, PENGO® and STANLEY® Assembly Technologies. The Security segment includes significant trademarks such as STANLEY®, HSM®, SONITROL®, Stanley Access Technologies™, AeroScout®, Hugs®, WanderGuard®, Roam Alert®, MyCall®, Arial® and Bed-Check®. The terms of these trademarks typically vary from 10 to 20 years, with most trademarks being renewable indefinitely for like terms.
Governmental Regulations
The Company's operations are subject to numerous federal, state and local laws and regulations, both within and outside the U.S., in areas such as environmental protection, international trade, data privacy, tax, consumer protection, government contracts, and others. The Company is subject to import and export controls, tariffs, and other trade-related regulations and restrictions in the countries in which it has operations or otherwise does business. These controls, tariffs, regulations, and restrictions have had, and may continue to have, a material impact on the Company's business, including its ability to sell products and to manufacture or source components. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors in Part I of this Form 10-K for additional information regarding various laws and regulations that affect the Company's business operations.
The Company is also subject to various environmental laws and regulations in the U.S. and foreign countries where it has operations. In the normal course of business, the Company is involved in various legal proceedings relating to environmental issues. The Company’s policy is to accrue environmental investigatory and remediation costs for identified sites when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. In the event that no amount in the range of probable loss is considered most likely, the minimum loss in the range is accrued. The amount of liability recorded is based on an evaluation of currently available facts with respect to each individual site and includes such factors as existing technology, presently enacted laws and regulations, and prior experience in remediation of contaminated sites. The liabilities recorded do not take into account any claims for recoveries from insurance or third parties. As assessments and remediation progress at individual sites, the amounts recorded are reviewed periodically and adjusted to reflect additional technical and legal information that becomes available. As of January 2, 2021 and December 28, 2019, the Company had reserves of $174.2 million and $213.8 million, respectively, for remediation activities associated with Company-owned properties, as well as for Superfund sites, for losses that are probable and estimable. Of the 2020 amount, $46.7 million is classified as current and $127.5 million as long-term, which is expected to be paid over the estimated remediation period. As of January 2, 2021, the Company has recorded $15.9 million in other assets related to funding by the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") and monies received have been placed in trust in accordance with the Consent Decree associated with the West Coast Loading Corporation ("WCLC") proceedings, as further discussed in Note S, Contingencies, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. Accordingly, the Company's net cash obligation as of January 2, 2021 associated with the aforementioned remediation activities is $158.3 million. The range of environmental remediation costs that is reasonably possible is $102.9 million to $245.3 million, which is subject to change in the near term. The Company may be liable for environmental remediation of sites it no longer owns. Liabilities have been recorded on those sites in accordance with the Company's policy.
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The amount recorded for identified contingent liabilities is based on estimates. Amounts recorded are reviewed periodically and adjusted to reflect additional technical and legal information that becomes available. Actual costs to be incurred in future periods may vary from the estimates, given the inherent uncertainties in evaluating certain exposures. Subject to the imprecision in estimating future contingent liability costs, the Company does not expect that any sum it may have to pay in connection with these matters in excess of the amounts recorded will have a materially adverse effect on its financial position, results of operations or liquidity. Additional information regarding environmental matters is available in Note S, Contingencies, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.
Compliance with government regulations, including environmental regulations, has not had, and based on current information and the applicable laws and regulations currently in effect, is not expected to have a material effect on the Company's capital expenditures, results of operations or competitive position. However, laws and regulations may be changed, accelerated or adopted that impose significant operational restrictions and compliance requirements upon the Company and which could negatively impact its operating results and financial condition.
Human Capital Management
The Company’s purpose is For Those Who Make the World, which puts employees, customers, communities and plants at the heart of its human capital strategies and practices. The Company defines success as delivering value for all stakeholders. The Company believes its commitment to quality, safety and sustainability enables its vision to be the type of uniquely human-centered global industrial company that strives to keep every stakeholder in mind and the Company's values, operating model and oversight of its human capital support this purpose.
As of January 2, 2021, the Company had approximately 53,100 employees in over 60 countries, approximately one-third of whom were employed in the U.S. In addition, the Company had approximately 10,500 temporary contractors globally, primarily in operations. The workforce is comprised of approximately 68% hourly-paid employees, principally in manufacturing, distribution center and security monitoring operations, and 32% salaried employees. Nearly 1,400 U.S. employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements dispersed among 28 different local labor unions, and a majority of European employees are represented by workers councils. The Company strives to maintain a positive relationship with all its employees, as well as the unions and workers councils representing them where applicable. There have been no significant interruptions of the Company’s operations in recent years due to labor disputes.
Governance and Oversight
The CEO and the management Executive Committee are entrusted with developing and advancing the Company’s key human capital strategy which is reviewed with the Board of Directors. The Chief Human Resource Officer is charged with the development and stewardship of this strategy on an enterprise-wide basis. This incorporates a broad range of dimensions, including culture, values, labor and employee relations, leadership capabilities, performance management and total rewards. Diversity, equity and inclusion are key to successfully achieving business and organizational objectives. Key processes include ongoing performance and development feedback, quarterly diversity, equity and inclusion reviews, and periodic engagement surveys that are reviewed by the management Executive Committee and Board of Directors. Code of Business Ethics, Workplace Harassment Prevention, and Managing Unconscious Bias trainings are provided to employees and the content is regularly reviewed for applicability and improvement, and updated as needed. All employees have access to the INTEGRITY@SBD platform where support, guidance and resources are available on topics regarding integrity, code of ethics, diversity, compliance, and workplace harassment. Employees are encouraged to address any concerns through multiple channels, including anonymously whenever possible, without fear of retaliation or retribution.
Diversity, Equity & Inclusion
The Company's management Executive Committee, Board of Directors and workforce are dedicated to diversity, equity and inclusion and work to ensure that all employees feel valued, heard and are positioned to succeed. As of January 2, 2021, the Company's CEO and his direct staff reside in the U.S. and are comprised of 27% women and 20% of the CEO and his direct staff are racially or ethnically diverse. Women represent approximately 31% of the global workforce. As stated in the Company's Equal Employment Opportunity reporting to the U.S. government, in the U.S., approximately 33% of employees are racially or ethnically diverse.
The Company strives to create a culture of equality that unlocks human potential and uncovers the key drivers of a workplace in which everyone can advance and thrive. The Company is executing initiatives across the global workforce designed to foster an inclusive workplace and facilitate equitable career development opportunities. The Company has nine employee resource groups ("ERGs") with more than 90 local chapters across the globe. These ERGs are formed around various dimensions of diversity and participation across groups is encouraged. The ERGs include Abilities (including cognitive, social-emotional, and physical abilities), African Ancestry, Asian Heritage, Hispanic/Latinx, Developing Professionals, Pride & Allies (LGBTQ+),
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Veterans, Women, and Working Parents. Company leaders actively participate, sponsor and engage with the ERGs. Management monitors hiring, retention, promotion and continued progress toward achieving the Company's diversity goals. The Company also prioritizes investing in its communities by supporting individuals and organizations that advance these goals across cities and regions in which it operates. In 2020, the management Executive Committee prioritized a focus on gender and racial/ethnic diversity across the Company. The Company launched an equity campaign designed to reach, inspire, support and engage (“RISE”) women and people of color. Through RISE, the Company has supported ten actions to confront racism and social injustice throughout its communities and across the world, which includes specific goals across culture, career, and community focus areas. In 2019, the Company became a signatory of Paradigm for Parity committing to addressing the gender gap in corporate leadership. The Company has also participated in the Business Roundtable Diversity & Inclusion Index, where the largest U.S.-based employers are committed to building a more inclusive environment. The Company's CEO was among the signatories of the CEO Action for Diversity & Inclusion.
Lifelong Learning
The Company believes a sustainable competitive advantage is achieved through lifelong learning. The employees' rate of learning, resilience, and adaptive performance enables the Company to innovate, operate with excellence, and deliver value to customers and shareholders. Employee learning and development is a key enabler to engage, motivate and inspire the Company's workforce and is supported internally through the Stanley Black & Decker University and externally with key partners. Tailored programs address career advancement, leadership development, and skill development needs of the workforce across the Company. Employees consumed more than 25,000 hours of online voluntary learning in 2020. As a leader in advanced manufacturing the Company also strives to provide meaningful training and development for critical skills, new skills, and ways of working with technology to its labor and factory workforce. This includes new operational skills, maintenance, digital, and management skills. The Company utilizes a broad range of capabilities, modes of learning, and platforms, including the use of artificial intelligence and data analytics to achieve its lifelong learning and advanced manufacturing objectives.
Talent Attraction, Advancement, and Retention
The diversity of skills, ways of working, and adaptability of the Company's operating model continue to increase and are reflected in all aspects of its talent management practices. Approximately 35% of global new hires in 2020 were women, and in the U.S. approximately 47% of new employees were racially or ethnically diverse. Internal talent reviews are conducted annually to manage talent and leadership performance. The Company utilizes feedback provided by employees through multiple channels, including internal social platforms, listening sessions, and periodic surveys to improve the employee experience and aspires to be the employer of choice. Development and succession plans are managed in partnership with Human Resources and business segments. Employee compensation and benefits are globally managed and locally adjusted to maintain market and skill competitiveness to attract and retain talent.
Employee Wellness, Health and Safety
The Company is committed to providing competitive benefits to attract and retain talent, that vary by country, including benefits and programs to support healthy lifestyles, mental health, and retirement readiness. In 2020, the Company's commitment to ensuring the health and safety of its employees and supply chain partners was demonstrated through its agile and adaptive response to the ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The Company was able to sustain business operations by implementing critical safety measures and wellness policies, oversight and systems. These actions proved to be highly effective in protecting critical manufacturing and operating employees in site locations and field operations. The Company also quickly transitioned its office employees around the globe to a nearly complete virtual workforce, providing the necessary technical and collaboration support to enable these employees to adjust to a virtual working environment. The Company believes the adopted hybrid work policies are likely to be a lasting result of the pandemic and will be a key enabler to support the broad needs of critical on-site to fully virtual employees. Additional information regarding the Company's response to COVID-19 is available under the caption “COVID-19 Pandemic” in Item 7.
The Company’s Environmental, Health, and Safety (“EHS”) Management System Plan describes the core elements of health and safety responsibility and accountability, including policies and procedures, designed in alignment with global standards, the Company’s Code of Business Ethics, applicable law and individual facility needs. Health and safety requirements apply to all employees and operating unit locations worldwide, including all manufacturing facilities, distribution centers, warehouses, field service centers, retail, office locations and mobile units, as well as to the Company's subsidiaries and joint ventures (in which the Company exercises decision making control over operations). Legal requirements may vary in different countries in which the Company’s facilities are located. Primary measures of safety performance include Total Recordable Incident Rate ("TRIR") and the Lost Time Incident Rate ("LTIR") based upon the number of incidents per 100 employees (or per 200,000 work hours).
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Through December 2020, the Company reported a TRIR of 0.48, a LTIR of 0.17 and zero work-related fatalities. Reported total workforce numbers include employees and supervised contractors.
Additional information regarding the Company's Human Capital programs and initiatives is available in the Company's Annual Sustainability Report located under the Social Responsibility section of the Company’s website. The information on the Company’s website is not, and is not intended to be, part of this Form 10-K and is not incorporated into this report by reference.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development costs, which are classified in Selling, general and administrative ("SG&A"), were $211.0 million, $255.2 million and $275.8 million for fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The reduction in spending in 2020 versus 2019 was primarily due to the temporary cost actions taken in response to COVID-19 that were broadly reinstated. In 2021, the Company plans to return to historic normalized spend levels consistent with 2019 as the Company continues to focus on becoming known as one of the world's greatest innovators and remains committed to generating new core and breakthrough innovations.
Available Information
The Company’s website is located at http://www.stanleyblackanddecker.com. This URL is intended to be an inactive textual reference only. It is not intended to be an active hyperlink to the Company's website. The information on the Company's website is not, and is not intended to be, part of this Form 10-K and is not incorporated into this report by reference. The Company makes its Forms 10-K, 10-Q, 8-K and amendments to each available free of charge on its website as soon as reasonably practicable after filing them with, or furnishing them to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC").


ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The Company’s business, operations and financial condition are subject to various risks and uncertainties. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including those risks set forth under the heading entitled "Cautionary Statements Under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995" in Item 7, and in other documents that the Company files with the SEC, before making any investment decision with respect to its securities. If any of the risks or uncertainties actually occur or develop, the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects could change. Under these circumstances, the trading prices of the Company’s securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment in the Company’s securities.

Business and Operational Risks

The continued adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and an indeterminate recovery period could have a materially negative impact on the Company’s business, operations, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity, the nature and extent of which is highly uncertain.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widespread public health crisis and governmental authorities have implemented numerous measures attempting to contain and mitigate the effects of the virus. These measures have adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, the Company’s workforce and operations and the operations of its customers, distributors, suppliers and contractors. There is significant uncertainty regarding such measures and potential future measures, and restrictions on the Company's access to its manufacturing facilities or on its support operations or workforce, or similar limitations for its distributors and suppliers. These measures have limited and could continue to limit customer demand and/or the Company's capacity to meet customer demand, which could have a material negative impact on its financial condition and results of operations. In addition, a sustained downturn in customer demand or other economic conditions could result in material charges related to bad debt or inventory write-offs, restructuring charges, or impairments of long-lived assets, including both tangible and intangible assets. Furthermore, a sustained downturn in financial markets and asset values could adversely affect the Company’s cost of capital, liquidity and access to capital markets, in addition to potentially increasing its pension funding obligations to ensure its pension plans continue to be adequately funded.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has caused the Company to modify its business practices (including employee travel, employee work locations, and cancellation of physical participation in meetings, events and conferences), and the Company may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that the Company determines are in the best interests
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of its employees, customers, distributors, suppliers and contractors. There is no certainty that such measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by the virus, and the Company's ability to perform critical functions could be harmed. Furthermore, as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the Company executed certain temporary and permanent cost reduction measures including adjustments to its supply chain and manufacturing labor base to match the demand environment and reductions in staffing, compensation and benefits in a manner that allows the Company to respond to changes in demand. These cost reduction measures may not prove to be successful and the Company may need to undertake further measures that could adversely impact its business and/or its ability to ramp up operations in a timely manner.

The continued spread of COVID-19 has caused, and may continue to cause, disruptions in the Company's supply chain, cause delay, or limit the ability of, customers to continue to operate and perform, including in making timely payments to the Company, result in the Company's inability to meet its consumers' and customers' needs due to disruptions in manufacturing and supply arrangements caused by the loss or disruption of essential manufacturing and supply elements, and cause other unpredictable events.

In addition, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may also limit the Company’s resources or delay the Company’s ability to implement strategic initiatives. If strategic initiatives are delayed, such initiatives may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s competitive position, business, financial condition and results of operations and cash flows.

The continued spread of COVID-19 has caused, and may continue to cause, significant reductions in demand or significant volatility in demand for certain of the Company’s products. As lockdowns occurred in the first and second quarters of 2020, those subject to lockdowns engaged in home improvement projects in large numbers, and demand for the Company’s products at its retail partners increased significantly. As different geographical areas anticipate moving into a recovery era, demand for the Company’s products may decrease as focus shifts to activities outside the home. The degree to which COVID-19 ultimately affects the Company’s results and operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including, but not limited to, the duration and spread of the outbreak, its severity, the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact, the availability, distribution, acceptance and efficacy of a vaccine, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume.

Changes in customer preferences, the inability to maintain mutually beneficial relationships with large customers, inventory reductions by customers, and the inability to penetrate new channels of distribution could adversely affect the Company’s business.

The Company has certain significant customers, particularly home centers and major retailers. In 2020, the two largest customers comprised approximately 27% of net sales, with U.S. and international mass merchants and home centers collectively comprising approximately 42% of net sales. The loss or material reduction of business, the lack of success of sales initiatives, or changes in customer preferences or loyalties for the Company’s products, related to any such significant customer could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s results of operations and cash flows. In addition, the Company’s major customers are volume purchasers, a few of which are much larger than the Company and have strong bargaining power with suppliers. This limits the ability to recover cost increases through higher selling prices. Furthermore, unanticipated inventory adjustments by these customers can have a negative impact on the Company's net sales.

If customers in the Convergent Security Solutions ("CSS") business are dissatisfied with services and switch to competitive services or disconnect for other reasons, such as preference for digital technology products or other technology enhancements not then offered by CSS, the Company's attrition rates may increase. In periods of increasing attrition rates, recurring revenue and results of operations may be materially adversely affected. The risk is more pronounced in times of economic uncertainty, as customers may reduce amounts spent on the products and services the Company provides.

In times of tough economic conditions, the Company has experienced significant distributor inventory corrections reflecting de-stocking of the supply chain associated with difficult credit markets. Such distributor de-stocking exacerbated sales volume declines pertaining to weak end user demand and the broader economic recession. The Company’s results may be adversely impacted in future periods by such customer inventory adjustments. Further, the inability to continue to penetrate new channels of distribution may have a negative impact on the Company’s future results.

The Company faces active global competition and if it does not compete effectively, its business may suffer.

The Company faces active competition and resulting pricing pressures. The Company’s products compete on the basis of, among other things, its reputation for product quality, its well-known brands, price, innovation and customer service capabilities. The Company competes with both larger and smaller companies that offer the same or similar products and
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services or that produce different products appropriate for the same uses. These companies are often located in countries such as China, Taiwan and India where labor and other production costs are substantially lower than in the U.S., Canada and Western Europe. Also, certain large customers offer house brands that compete with some of the Company’s product offerings as a lower-cost alternative. To remain profitable and defend market share, the Company must maintain a competitive cost structure, develop new products and services, lead product innovation, respond to competitor innovations and enhance its existing products in a timely manner. The Company may not be able to compete effectively on all of these fronts and with all of its competitors, and the failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on its sales and profit margins.

Operations Excellence, one element of the SBD Operating Model, is a continuous operational improvement process applied to many aspects of the Company’s business such as procurement, quality in manufacturing, maximizing customer fill rates, integrating acquisitions and other key business processes. In the event the Company is not successful in effectively applying the Operations Excellence principles to its key business processes, including those of acquired businesses, its ability to compete and future earnings could be adversely affected.

In addition, the Company may have to reduce prices on its products and services, or make other concessions, to stay competitive and retain market share. Price reductions taken by the Company in response to customer and competitive pressures, as well as price reductions and promotional actions taken to drive demand that may not result in anticipated sales levels, could also negatively impact its business. The Company engages in restructuring actions, sometimes entailing shifts of production to low-cost countries, as part of its efforts to maintain a competitive cost structure. If the Company does not execute restructuring actions well, its ability to meet customer demand may decline, or earnings may otherwise be adversely impacted. Similarly, if such efforts to reform the cost structure are delayed relative to competitors or other market factors, the Company may lose market share and profits.

Customer consolidation could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business.

A significant portion of the Company’s products are sold through home centers and mass merchant distribution channels in the U.S. and Europe. A consolidation of retailers in both North America and abroad has occurred over time and the increasing size and importance of individual customers creates risk of exposure to potential volume loss. The loss of certain larger home centers as customers would have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business.

Low demand for new products and the inability to develop and introduce new products at favorable margins could adversely impact the Company’s performance and prospects for future growth.

The Company’s competitive advantage is due in part to its ability to develop and introduce new products in a timely manner at favorable margins. The uncertainties associated with developing and introducing new products, such as market demand and costs of development and production, may impede the successful development and introduction of new products on a consistent basis. Introduction of new technology may result in higher costs to the Company than that of the technology replaced. That increase in costs, which may continue indefinitely or until increased demand and greater availability in the sources of the new technology drive down its cost, could adversely affect the Company’s results of operations. Market acceptance of the new products introduced in recent years and scheduled for introduction in future years may not meet sales expectations due to various factors, such as the failure to accurately predict market demand, end-user preferences, evolving industry standards, or the emergence of new or disruptive technologies. Moreover, the ultimate success and profitability of the new products may depend on the Company’s ability to resolve technical and technological challenges in a timely and cost-effective manner, and to achieve manufacturing efficiencies. The Company’s investments in productive capacity and commitments to fund advertising and product promotions in connection with these new products could erode profits if those expectations are not met.

The pace of technological change continues to accelerate and the Company's ability to react effectively to such change may present significant competitive risks.

The pace of technological change is increasing at an exponential rate. The continued creation, development and advancement of new technologies such as 5G data networks, artificial intelligence, blockchain, quantum computing, data analytics, 3-D printing, robotics, sensor technology, data storage, neural networks, augmented reality, amongst others, as well as other technologies in the future that are not foreseen today, continue to transform the Company’s processes, products and services.

In order to remain competitive, the Company will need to stay abreast of such technologies, require its employees to continue to learn and adapt to new technologies and be able to integrate them into its current and future business models, products, services and processes and also guard against existing and new competitors disrupting its business using such technologies. The Company’s strategy, value creation model, operating model and innovation ecosystem have important technological elements and many of the Company’s products and offerings are based on technological advances, including artificial intelligence,
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machine learning, advanced analytics and the Internet of Things. In addition, the Company will need to compete for talent that is familiar with such technologies including upskilling its workforce. There can be no assurance that the Company will continue to compete effectively with its industry peers due to technological changes, which could result in a material adverse effect on the Company's business and results of operations.

The Company has significant operations outside of the United States, which are subject to political, legal, economic and other risks arising from operating outside of the United States.

The Company generates a significant portion of its total revenue outside of the United States. Business operations outside of the United States are subject to political, economic and other risks inherent in operating in certain countries, such as:

the difficulty of enforcing agreements and protecting assets through legal systems outside the U.S. including intellectual property rights, which may not be recognized, and which the Company may not be able to protect outside the U.S. to the same extent as under U.S. law;
managing widespread operations and enforcing internal policies and procedures such as compliance with U.S. and foreign anti-bribery, anti-corruption, and sanctions regulations;
trade protection measures and import or export licensing requirements including those related to the U.S.'s relationship with China;
the application of certain labor regulations outside of the United States;
compliance with a wide variety of non-U.S. laws and regulations;
ongoing stability or changes in the general political and economic conditions in the countries where the Company operates, particularly in emerging markets;
the threat of nationalization and expropriation;
increased costs and risks of doing business and managing a workforce in a wide variety of jurisdictions;
the increased possibility of cyber threats in certain jurisdictions;
government controls limiting importation of goods;
government controls limiting payments to suppliers for imported goods;
limitations on, or impacts from, the repatriation of foreign earnings; and
exposure to wage, price and capital controls.

Changes in the political or economic environments in the countries in which the Company operates could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Additionally, the Company is subject to complex U.S., foreign and other local laws and regulations that are applicable to its operations abroad, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, the UK Bribery Act of 2010 and other anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws. Although the Company has implemented internal controls, policies and procedures and employee training and compliance programs to deter prohibited practices, such measures may not be effective in preventing employees, contractors or agents from violating or circumventing such internal policies and violating applicable laws and regulations. Any determination that the Company has violated anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws or sanctions regulations could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, operating results and financial condition. Compliance with international and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to the Company’s international operations increases the cost of doing business in foreign jurisdictions. Violations of such laws and regulations may result in severe fines and penalties, criminal sanctions, administrative remedies or restrictions on business conduct, and could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s reputation, its ability to attract and retain employees, its business, operating results and financial condition.

The Company’s business is subject to risks associated with sourcing and manufacturing overseas.

The Company imports large quantities of finished goods, component parts and raw materials. Substantially all of its import operations are subject to customs requirements and to tariffs and quotas set by governments through mutual agreements, bilateral actions or, in some cases unilateral action. In addition, the countries in which the Company’s products and materials are manufactured or imported from (including importation into the U.S. of the Company's products manufactured overseas) may from time to time impose additional quotas, duties, tariffs or other restrictions on its imports (including restrictions on manufacturing operations) or adversely modify existing restrictions. In recent years, changes in U.S. policy regarding international trade, including import and export regulation and international trade agreements, have negatively impacted the Company’s business. For example, in 2018 the U.S. imposed tariffs on steel and aluminum as well as on goods imported from China and certain other countries, which resulted in retaliatory tariffs by China and other countries. Additional tariffs imposed by the U.S. on a broader range of imports, or further retaliatory trade measures taken by China or other countries in response, could result in an increase in supply chain costs that the Company may not be able to offset or otherwise adversely impact the Company’s results of operations. Furthermore, imported products and materials may be subject to future tariffs or other trade measures in the U.S. Imports are also subject to unpredictable foreign currency variation which may increase the Company’s
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cost of goods sold. Adverse changes in these import costs and restrictions, or failure by the Company’s suppliers to comply with customs regulations or similar laws, could harm the Company’s business.

The Company’s operations are also subject to the effects of international trade agreements and regulations such as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, and the activities and regulations of the World Trade Organization. Although these trade agreements generally have positive effects on trade liberalization, sourcing flexibility and cost of goods by reducing or eliminating the duties and/or quotas assessed on products manufactured in a particular country, trade agreements can also impose requirements that adversely affect the Company’s business, such as setting quotas on products that may be imported from a particular country into key markets including the U.S. or the European Union ("EU"), or making it easier for other companies to compete, by eliminating restrictions on products from countries where the Company’s competitors source products.

The Company’s ability to import products in a timely and cost-effective manner may also be affected by conditions at ports or issues that otherwise affect transportation and warehousing providers, such as fluctuations in freight costs, port and shipping capacity, labor disputes, severe weather due to climate change or increased homeland security requirements in the U.S. and other countries. These issues could delay importation of products or require the Company to locate alternative ports or warehousing providers to avoid disruption to customers. These alternatives may not be available on short notice or could result in higher transit costs, which could have an adverse impact on the Company’s business and financial condition.

In addition, the Company has a number of key suppliers in South Korea. Escalation of hostilities with North Korea and/or military action in the region could cause disruptions in the Company's supply chain which could, in turn, cause product shortages, delays in delivery and/or increases in the Company's cost incurred to produce and deliver products to its customers.

The Company’s success depends on its ability to improve productivity and streamline operations to control or reduce costs.

The Company is committed to continuous productivity improvement and evaluating opportunities to reduce fixed costs, simplify or improve processes, and eliminate excess capacity. The Company has undertaken restructuring actions, the savings of which may be mitigated by many factors, including economic weakness, competitive pressures, and decisions to increase costs in areas such as sales promotion or research and development above levels that were otherwise assumed. Failure to achieve, or delays in achieving, projected levels of efficiencies and cost savings from such measures, or unanticipated inefficiencies resulting from manufacturing and administrative reorganization actions in progress or contemplated, would adversely affect the Company’s business and financial results.

The performance of the Company may suffer from business disruptions with catastrophic losses affecting distribution centers and other infrastructure, or other costs associated with information technology, system implementations, or cyber security risks.

The Company’s operations are significantly dependent on infrastructure, notably certain distribution centers and security alarm monitoring facilities, which are concentrated in various geographic locations. Factors that are hard to predict or are beyond the Company’s control, like weather (including any potential effects of climate change), natural disasters, supply and commodity shortages, fire, explosions, acts or threats of war or terrorism, political unrest, cybersecurity breaches, sabotage, generalized labor unrest or public health crises, including pandemics, could damage or disrupt the Company’s infrastructure, or that of its suppliers or distributors. If the Company does not effectively plan for or respond to disruptions in its operations, or cannot quickly repair damage to its information, production or supply systems, the Company may be late in delivering or unable to deliver products and services to its customers, and the quality and safety of its products and services might be negatively affected. If a material or extended disruption occurs, the Company may lose its customers’ or business partners’ confidence or suffer damage to its reputation, and long-term consumer demand for its products and services could decline. Although the Company maintains business interruption insurance, it may not fully protect the Company against all adverse effects that could result from significant disruptions. These events could materially and adversely affect the Company’s product sales, financial condition and results of operations.

The Company relies heavily on digital technology, including those of third parties, to manage and operate its businesses, and record and process transactions. Digital technologies are important to sales and marketing, production planning, manufacturing, customer service and order fulfillment among other business-critical processes. Consistent and efficient operation of the computer hardware and software systems is imperative to the successful sales and earnings performance of the Company's various businesses in many countries. Additionally, the Company relies on software applications and enterprise cloud storage systems and cloud computing services provided by third-party vendors, and the Company's business may be adversely affected by service disruptions or security breaches in such third-party systems.

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In addition, the Company is in the process of system integrations, conversions, and capability additions such as eCommerce, Artificial Intelligence and Data Analytics to drive enhanced business outcomes. There can be no assurances that expected expense or revenue synergies will be achieved or that there will not be delays to the expected timing of system integrations, conversions or capability additions. It is possible the costs to complete the system integrations, conversions or capability additions may exceed expectations, and that significant costs may be incurred that will require immediate expense recognition as opposed to capitalization. The risk of disruption to key operations and overall business is increased when complex system changes, such as integrations, conversions or additions are undertaken. If systems fail to function effectively, or become damaged, operational delays may ensue and the Company may be forced to make significant expenditures to remedy such issues. Any significant disruption in the Company’s digital technology could have a material adverse impact on its business and results.

Despite efforts to prevent such situations and maintaining insurance policies and loss control and risk management practices that partially mitigate these risks, the Company’s digital technologies may be affected by damage or interruption from, among other causes, power outages, system failures or cyber attacks.

Industry and Economic Risks

The Company’s results of operations could be negatively impacted by inflationary or deflationary economic conditions which could affect the ability to obtain raw materials, component parts, freight, energy, labor and sourced finished goods in a timely and cost-effective manner.

The Company’s products are manufactured using both ferrous and non-ferrous metals including, but not limited to, steel, zinc, copper, brass, aluminum, and nickel. Additionally, the Company uses other commodity-based materials for components and packaging including, but not limited to, plastics, resins, wood and corrugated products. The Company’s cost base also reflects significant elements for freight, energy and labor. The Company also sources certain finished goods directly from vendors. If the Company is unable to mitigate any inflationary increases through various customer pricing actions and cost reduction initiatives, its profitability may be adversely affected.

Conversely, in the event there is deflation, the Company may experience pressure from its customers to reduce prices, and there can be no assurance that the Company would be able to reduce its cost base (through negotiations with suppliers or other measures) to offset any such price concessions which could adversely impact results of operations and cash flows.

Further, as a result of inflationary or deflationary economic conditions, the Company believes it is possible that a limited number of suppliers may either cease operations or require additional financial assistance from the Company in order to fulfill their obligations. In a limited number of circumstances, the magnitude of the Company’s purchases of certain items is of such significance that a change in established relationships with suppliers or increase in the costs of purchased raw materials, component parts or finished goods could result in manufacturing interruptions, delays, inefficiencies or an inability to market products. Changes in value-added tax rebates, currently available to the Company or to its suppliers, could also increase the costs of the Company’s manufactured products, as well as purchased products and components, and could adversely affect the Company’s results.

In addition, many of the Company’s products incorporate battery technology. As other industries begin to adopt similar battery technology for use in their products or increase their current consumption of battery technology, the increased demand could place capacity constraints on the Company’s supply chain. In addition, increased demand for battery technology may also increase the costs to the Company for both the battery cells as well as the underlying raw materials. If the Company is unable to mitigate any possible supply constraints, related increased costs or drive alternative technology through innovation, its profitably and financial results could be negatively impacted.

Uncertainty about the financial stability of economies outside the U.S. could have a significant adverse effect on the Company's business, results of operations and financial condition.

The Company generates approximately 39% of its revenues outside the U.S., including 19% from Europe and 11% from various emerging market countries. Each of the Company’s segments generates sales in these marketplaces. While the Company believes any downturn in the European or emerging marketplaces might be offset to some degree by the relative stability in North America, the Company’s future growth, profitability and financial liquidity could be affected, in several ways, including but not limited to the following:

depressed consumer and business confidence may decrease demand for products and services;
customers may implement cost reduction initiatives or delay purchases to address inventory levels;
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significant declines of foreign currency values in countries where the Company operates could impact both the revenue growth and overall profitability in those geographies;
a slowing or contracting Chinese economy could reduce China’s consumption and negatively impact the Company’s sales in that region, as well as globally;
a devaluation of foreign currencies could have an effect on the credit worthiness (as well as the availability of funds) of customers in those regions impacting the collectability of receivables;
a devaluation of foreign currencies could have an adverse effect on the value of financial assets of the Company in the effected countries; and
the impact of an event (individual country default, Brexit, or break up of the Euro) could have an adverse impact on the global credit markets and global liquidity potentially impacting the Company’s ability to access these credit markets and to raise capital.

Continuing uncertainty associated with Brexit could adversely affect the Company’s business.

While the UK Parliament has voted to approve the withdrawal/transition agreement negotiated by the EU and the UK government and while, in December 2020, the UK and the EU agreed on a trade and cooperation agreement that will apply provisionally after the end of the transition period, significant uncertainty remains with respect to the impacts of Brexit. Brexit could adversely affect European or worldwide political, regulatory, economic or market conditions and could contribute to instability in global political institutions, regulatory agencies and financial markets. Any impact from Brexit on the Company's business and operations over the long term will depend, in part, on the outcome of the implementation of the trade and cooperation agreement, future agreements (or lack thereof) between the UK and the EU, including with respect to tariff, tax treaties, trade, regulatory, and other negotiations.

In particular, the Company's operations in the UK will be particularly exposed to the risks and uncertainties relating to Brexit. Under the trade and cooperation agreement, UK service suppliers no longer benefit from automatic access to the entire EU single market, UK goods no longer benefit from the free movement of goods and there is no longer the free movement of people between the UK and the EU. The Bank of England and other observers have warned of a significant probability of a Brexit-related recession in the UK. Volatility in exchanges rates, including potential declines in the value of the British Pound, and in interest rates are also expected. Disruptions and uncertainty caused by Brexit may also cause customers to closely monitor their costs and reduce their spending budget on the Company's products and services. These impacts could cause a significant decline in revenue as the Company generates approximately 4% of its revenues in the UK. In addition, as the UK determines which EU laws to replace or replicate, including UK competition laws, Brexit could lead to potentially divergent national laws and regulations. Lack of clarity about the future relationship between the UK and the EU, and the laws and regulations that may apply, including in particular with respect to aspects of laws and regulations which were not covered by the trade and cooperation agreement, such as financial laws and regulations, could increase costs and depress economic activity. Any of the foregoing factors could result in an uncertain and difficult regulatory environment that could negatively impact the Company’s UK business.

The Company is exposed to market risk from changes in foreign currency exchange rates which could negatively impact profitability.

The Company manufactures and sells its products in many countries throughout the world. As a result, there is exposure to foreign currency risk as the Company enters into transactions and makes investments denominated in multiple currencies. The Company’s predominant currency exposures are related to the Euro, Canadian Dollar, British Pound, Australian Dollar, Brazilian Real, Argentine Peso, Chinese Renminbi (“RMB”) and the Taiwan Dollar. In preparing its financial statements, for foreign operations with functional currencies other than the U.S. dollar, asset and liability accounts are translated at current exchange rates, while income and expenses are translated using average exchange rates. With respect to the effects on translated earnings, if the U.S. dollar strengthens relative to local currencies, the Company’s earnings could be negatively impacted. Although the Company utilizes risk management tools, including hedging, as it deems appropriate, to mitigate a portion of potential market fluctuations in foreign currencies, there can be no assurance that such measures will result in all market fluctuation exposure being eliminated. The Company generally does not hedge the translation of its non-U.S. dollar earnings in foreign subsidiaries but may choose to do so in certain instances.

The Company sources many products from China and other low-cost countries for resale in other regions. To the extent the RMB or other currencies appreciate, the Company may experience cost increases on such purchases. The Company may not be successful at implementing customer pricing or other actions in an effort to mitigate the related cost increases and thus its profitability may be adversely impacted.

Financing Risks
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The Company has incurred, and may incur in the future, significant indebtedness, and may in the future issue additional equity securities, including in connection with mergers or acquisitions, which may impact the manner in which it conducts business or the Company’s access to external sources of liquidity. The potential issuance of such securities may limit the Company’s ability to implement elements of its growth strategy and may have a dilutive effect on earnings.

As described in Note H, Long-Term Debt and Financing Arrangements, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8, the Company has a five-year $2.0 billion committed credit facility and a 364-day $1.0 billion committed credit facility. No amounts were outstanding against either of these facilities at January 2, 2021. As of January 2, 2021, the Company had $4.3 billion principal amount of indebtedness.

The instruments and agreements governing certain of the Company’s current indebtedness contain requirements or restrictive covenants that include, among other things:

a limitation on creating liens on certain property of the Company and its subsidiaries;
a restriction on entering into certain sale-leaseback transactions;
customary events of default. If an event of default occurs and is continuing, the Company might be required to repay all amounts outstanding under the respective instrument or agreement; and
maintenance of a specified financial ratio. The Company has an interest coverage covenant that must be maintained to permit continued access to its committed revolving credit facilities. The interest coverage ratio tested for covenant compliance compares adjusted Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization to adjusted Interest Expense ("adjusted EBITDA"/"adjusted Interest Expense"); such adjustments to interest or EBITDA include, but are not limited to, removal of non-cash interest expense and stock-based compensation expense. In April 2020, the Company entered into an amendment to: (a) amend the definition of Adjusted EBITDA to allow for additional adjustment addbacks, which primarily relate to anticipated incremental charges related to the COVID-19 pandemic, for amounts incurred beginning in the second quarter of 2020 through the second quarter of 2021, and (b) lower the minimum interest coverage ratio from 3.5 to 2.5 times for the period from and including the second quarter of 2020 through the end of fiscal year 2021. The interest coverage ratio must not be less than 2.5 times and is computed quarterly, on a rolling twelve months (last twelve months) basis. Under this covenant definition, the interest coverage ratio was 8.4 times EBITDA or higher in each of the 2020 quarterly measurement periods. Management does not believe it is reasonably likely the Company will breach this covenant. Failure to maintain this ratio could adversely affect further access to liquidity.

Future instruments and agreements governing indebtedness may impose other restrictive conditions or covenants. Such covenants could restrict the Company in the manner in which it conducts business and operations as well as in the pursuit of its growth and acquisition strategy.

The Company is exposed to counterparty risk in its hedging arrangements.

From time to time, the Company enters into arrangements with financial institutions to hedge exposure to fluctuations in currency and interest rates, including forward contracts, options and swap agreements. The Company may incur significant losses from hedging activities due to factors such as demand volatility. The failure of one or more counterparties to the Company’s hedging arrangements to fulfill their obligations could adversely affect the Company’s results of operations.

Tight capital and credit markets or the failure to maintain credit ratings could adversely affect the Company by limiting the Company’s ability to borrow or otherwise access liquidity.

The Company’s long-term growth plans are dependent on, among other things, the availability of funding to support corporate initiatives and complete appropriate acquisitions and the ability to increase sales of existing product lines. While the Company has not encountered financing difficulties to date, the capital and credit markets have experienced extreme volatility and disruption in the past and may again in the future. Market conditions could make it more difficult for the Company to borrow or otherwise obtain the cash required for significant new corporate initiatives and acquisitions.

Furthermore, there could be a number of follow-on effects from a credit crisis on the Company’s businesses, including insolvency of key suppliers resulting in product delays; inability of customers to obtain credit to finance purchases of the Company’s products and services and/or customer insolvencies.

In addition, the major rating agencies regularly evaluate the Company for purposes of assigning credit ratings. The Company’s ability to access the credit markets, and the cost of these borrowings, is affected by the strength of its credit ratings and current
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market conditions. Failure to maintain credit ratings that are acceptable to investors may adversely affect the cost and other terms upon which the Company is able to obtain financing, as well as its access to the capital markets.

Discontinuation, reform or replacement of the London Inter-bank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") and other benchmark rates, or uncertainty related to the potential for any of the foregoing, may adversely affect the Company.

A portion of the Company’s indebtedness bears interest at rates that fluctuate with changes in certain short-term prevailing interest rates, including the LIBOR. The UK Financial Conduct Authority announced in 2017 that it intends to phase out LIBOR by the end of 2021. In addition, other regulators have suggested reforming or replacing other benchmark rates. These may be replaced by the Secured Overnight Financing Rate or other benchmark rates over the next several years. The discontinuation, reform or replacement of LIBOR or any other benchmark rates may have an unpredictable impact on contractual mechanics in the credit markets or cause disruption to the broader financial markets. These changes, and related uncertainty as to the nature of such potential discontinuation, reform or replacement may create incremental uncertainty in obtaining financing or increase the cost of borrowing. At this time, the Company cannot predict the overall effect of the modification or discontinuation of LIBOR or the establishment of alternative benchmark rates.

The Company is exposed to credit risk on its accounts receivable.

The Company’s outstanding trade receivables are not generally covered by collateral or credit insurance. While the Company has procedures to monitor and limit exposure to credit risk on its trade and non-trade receivables, there can be no assurance such procedures will effectively limit its credit risk and avoid losses, which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and operating results.

If the Company were required to write-down all or part of its goodwill, indefinite-lived trade names, or other definite-lived intangible assets, its net income and net worth could be materially adversely affected.

As a result of the Black and Decker merger and other acquisitions, the Company has approximately $10.0 billion of goodwill, approximately $2.2 billion of indefinite-lived trade names and approximately $1.9 billion of net definite-lived intangible assets at January 2, 2021. The Company is required to periodically, at least annually, determine if its goodwill or indefinite-lived trade names have become impaired, in which case it would write down the impaired portion of the asset. The definite-lived intangible assets, including customer relationships, are amortized over their estimated useful lives and are evaluated for impairment when appropriate. Impairment of intangible assets may be triggered by developments outside of the Company’s control, such as worsening economic conditions, technological change, intensified competition or other factors, which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

If the investments in employee benefit plans do not perform as expected, the Company may have to contribute additional amounts to these plans, which would otherwise be available to cover operating expenses or other business purposes.

The Company sponsors pension and other post-retirement defined benefit plans. The Company’s defined benefit plan assets are currently invested in equity securities, government and corporate bonds and other fixed income securities, money market instruments and insurance contracts. The Company’s funding policy is generally to contribute amounts determined annually on an actuarial basis to provide for current and future benefits in accordance with applicable law which require, among other things, that the Company make cash contributions to under-funded pension plans. During 2020, the Company made cash contributions to its defined benefit plans of approximately $40 million and expects to contribute $41 million to its defined benefit plans in 2021.

There can be no assurance that the value of the defined benefit plan assets, or the investment returns on those plan assets, will be sufficient in the future. It is therefore possible that the Company may be required to make higher cash contributions to the plans in future years which would reduce the cash available for other business purposes, and that the Company will have to recognize a significant pension liability adjustment which would decrease the net assets of the Company and result in higher expense in future years. The fair value of the defined benefit plan assets at January 2, 2021 was approximately $2.4 billion.

Strategic Risks

The successful execution of the Company’s business strategy depends on its ability to recruit, retain, train, motivate, and develop employees and execute effective succession planning.

The success of the Company’s efforts to grow its business depends on the contributions and abilities of key executives and management personnel, its sales force and other personnel, including the ability of its sales force to adapt to any changes made
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in the sales organization and achieve adequate customer coverage. The Company must therefore continue to recruit, retain, train and motivate management, sales and other personnel sufficiently to maintain its current business and support its projected growth. In addition, the Company must invest heavily in reskilling and upskilling its employees, including placing an emphasis on lifelong learning.

A shortage of key employees might jeopardize the Company’s ability to implement its growth strategy, and changes in the key management team can result in loss of continuity, loss of accumulated knowledge, departure of other key employees, disruptions to the Company’s operations and inefficiency during transitional periods. The Company’s reputation, business, revenue and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected if it is unable to recruit, retain, train, motivate, and develop employees and successfully execute organizational change and management transitions at leadership levels.

The Company’s acquisitions, as well as general business reorganizations, may result in significant costs and certain risks for its business and operations.

In 2020, the Company completed the Consolidated Aerospace Manufacturing, LLC (“CAM”) acquisition, as well as smaller acquisitions, and may make additional acquisitions in the future.

Acquisitions involve a number of risks, including:
the failure to identify the most suitable candidates for acquisitions;
the difficulties and cost in obtaining any necessary regulatory approvals;
the ability to identify and close on appropriate acquisition opportunities within desired time frames at reasonable cost;
the anticipated additional revenues from the acquired companies do not materialize, despite extensive due diligence;
the possibility that the acquired companies will not be successfully integrated or that anticipated cost savings, synergies, or other benefits will not be realized;
the acquired businesses will lose market acceptance or profitability;
the diversion of Company management’s attention and other resources;
the incurrence of unexpected costs and liabilities, including those associated with undisclosed pre-closing regulatory violations by the acquired business; and
the loss of key personnel, clients or customers of acquired companies.

In addition, the success of the Company’s long-term growth and acquisition strategy will depend in part on successful general reorganization including its ability to:
combine businesses and operations;
integrate departments, systems and procedures; and
obtain cost savings and other efficiencies from such reorganizations, including the Company's margin resiliency initiative.

Failure to effectively integrate acquired companies, consummate or manage any future acquisitions or general business reorganizations, and mitigate the related risks, may adversely affect the Company’s existing businesses and harm its operational results due to large write-offs, significant restructuring costs, contingent liabilities, substantial depreciation, and/or adverse tax or other consequences. The Company cannot ensure that such integrations and reorganizations will be successfully completed or that all of the planned synergies and other benefits will be realized.

Expansion of the Company’s activity in emerging markets may result in risks due to differences in business practices and cultures.

The Company’s growth plans include efforts to increase revenue from emerging markets through both organic growth and acquisitions. Local business practices in these regions may not comply with U.S. laws, local laws or other laws applicable to the Company. When investigating potential acquisitions, the Company seeks to identify historical practices of target companies that would create liability or other exposures for the Company were they to continue post-completion or as a successor to the target. Where such practices are discovered, the Company assesses the risk to determine whether it is prepared to proceed with the transaction. In assessing the risk, the Company looks at, among other factors, the nature of the violation, the potential liability, including any fines or penalties that might be incurred, the ability to avoid, minimize or obtain indemnity for the risks, and the likelihood that the Company would be able to ensure that any such practices are discontinued following completion of the acquisition through implementation of its own policies and procedures. Due diligence and risk assessment are, however, imperfect processes, and it is possible that the Company will not discover problematic practices until after completion, or that the Company will underestimate the risks associated with historical activities. Should that occur, the Company may incur fees, fines, penalties, injury to its reputation or other damage that could negatively impact the Company's earnings.

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Legal, Tax, Regulatory and Compliance Risks

The Company’s brands are important assets of its businesses and violation of its trademark rights by imitators, or the failure of its licensees or vendors to comply with the Company’s product quality, manufacturing requirements, marketing standards, and other requirements could negatively impact revenues and brand reputation. Any inability to protect the Company's other intellectual property rights could also reduce the value of its products and services or diminish its competitiveness.

The Company considers its intellectual property rights, including patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets, and licenses held, to be a significant part and valuable aspect of its business. The Company attempts to protect its intellectual property rights through a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, as well as licensing agreements and third-party nondisclosure and assignment agreements.

The Company’s trademarks have a reputation for quality and value and are important to the Company's success and competitive position. Unauthorized use of the Company’s trademark rights may not only erode sales of the Company’s products, but may also cause significant damage to its brand name and reputation, interfere with its ability to effectively represent the Company to its customers, contractors, suppliers, and/or licensees, and increase litigation costs. Similarly, failure by licensees or vendors to adhere to the Company’s standards of quality and other contractual requirements could result in loss of revenue, increased litigation, and/or damage to the Company’s reputation and business. There can be no assurance that the Company’s ongoing efforts to protect its brand and trademark rights and ensure compliance with its licensing and vendor agreements will prevent all violations.

In addition, the Company's ability to compete could be negatively impacted by its failure to obtain and adequately protect its intellectual property and preserve its associated intellectual property rights, including patents, copyrights, trade secrets, and licenses, as well as its products and any new features of its products or processes. The Company's patent applications may not be approved and any patents owned could be challenged, invalidated or designed around by third parties. In addition, the Company's patents may not be of sufficient scope or strength to provide meaningful protection or commercial advantage.

The Company is exposed to risks related to cybersecurity.
The Company’s operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential, sensitive, proprietary and other types of information relating to its business operations, as well as confidential and sensitive information about its customers and employees maintained in the Company’s computer systems and networks, certain products and services, and in the computer systems and networks of its third-party vendors. Cyber threats are rapidly evolving as data thieves and hackers have become increasingly sophisticated and carry out direct large-scale, complex automated attacks against a company or through vendor software supply chain compromises. In particular, the Company is increasingly relying on its IT infrastructure to support its operations as it manages the impact of COVID-19, including supporting remote-work protocols for a substantial number of the Company’s employees in regions impacted by the spread of COVID-19, which can increase cyber risks. The Company is not able to anticipate or prevent all such attacks and could be held liable for any resulting material security breach or data loss. In addition, it is not always possible to deter misconduct by employees or third-party vendors.

Breaches of the Company’s technology systems, or those of the Company’s vendors, whether from circumvention of security systems, denial-of-service attacks or other cyber-attacks, hacking, “phishing” attacks, computer viruses, ransomware or malware, employee or insider error, malfeasance, social engineering, vendor software supply chain compromises, physical breaches or other actions, have and may result in manipulation or corruption of sensitive data, material interruptions or malfunctions in the Company’s or such vendors’ websites, applications, data processing, and certain products and services, or disruption of other business operations. Furthermore, any such breaches could compromise the confidentiality and integrity of material information held by the Company (including information about the Company’s business, employees or customers), as well as sensitive personally identifiable information, the disclosure of which could lead to identity theft. Breaches of the Company’s products that rely on technology and internet connectivity can expose the Company to product and other liability risk and reputational harm. Measures that the Company takes to avoid, detect, mitigate or recover from material incidents, including implementing and conducting training on insider trading policies for the Company’s employees and maintaining contractual obligations for the Company’s third-party vendors, can be expensive, and may be insufficient, circumvented, or may become ineffective.

The Company has invested and continues to invest in risk management and information security and data privacy measures in order to protect its systems and data, including employee training, organizational investments, incident response plans, table top exercises and technical defenses. The cost and operational consequences of implementing, maintaining and enhancing further data or system protection measures could increase significantly to overcome increasingly intense, complex, and sophisticated
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global cyber threats. Despite the Company’s best efforts, it is not fully insulated from data breaches and system disruptions. Recent well-publicized security breaches at other companies have led to enhanced government and regulatory scrutiny of the measures taken by companies to protect against cyber-attacks, and may in the future result in heightened cybersecurity requirements, including additional regulatory expectations for oversight of vendors and service providers. Any material breaches of cybersecurity, including the accidental loss, inadvertent disclosure or unapproved dissemination of proprietary information or sensitive or confidential data, or media reports of perceived security vulnerabilities to the Company’s systems, products and services or those of the Company’s third parties could cause the Company to experience reputational harm, loss of customers and revenue, fines, regulatory actions and scrutiny, sanctions or other statutory penalties, litigation, liability for failure to safeguard the Company’s customers’ information, or financial losses that are either not insured against or not fully covered through any insurance maintained by the Company. The report, rumor or assumption regarding a potential breach may have similar results, even if no breach has been attempted or occurred. Any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, operating results and financial condition.

The Company is exposed to risks related to compliance with data privacy laws.

To conduct its operations, the Company regularly moves data across national borders, and consequently is subject to a variety of continuously evolving and developing laws and regulations in the United States and abroad regarding privacy, data protection and data security. The scope of the laws that may be applicable to the Company is often uncertain and may be conflicting, particularly with respect to foreign laws. For example, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which became effective in May 2018, greatly increased the jurisdictional reach of European Union law and added a broad array of requirements for handling personal data, including the public disclosure of significant data breaches. Similarly, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”), came into effect in January 2020, provides, among other things, a new private right of action for data breaches, requires companies that process information on California residents to make new disclosures to consumers about their data collection, use and sharing practices, and provides consumers with additional rights. The California Privacy Rights and Enforcement Act, which will become effective on January 1, 2023 amends and expands the CCPA, creating new industry requirements, consumer privacy rights and enforcement mechanisms. The Company's reputation and brand and its ability to attract new customers could also be adversely impacted if the Company fails, or is perceived to have failed, to properly respond to security breaches of its or third party’s information technology systems. Such failure to properly respond could also result in similar exposure to liability.

Additionally, other countries have enacted or are enacting data localization laws that require data to stay within their borders. In many cases, these laws and regulations apply not only to transfers between unrelated third parties but also to transfers between the Company and its subsidiaries.

All of these evolving compliance and operational requirements impose significant costs that are likely to increase over time. Privacy laws that may be implemented in the future, including the Schrems II decision invalidating the EU - U.S. Privacy Shield, will continue to require changes to certain business practices, thereby increasing costs, or may result in negative publicity, require significant management time and attention, and may subject the Company to remedies that may harm its business, including fines or demands or orders that the Company modify or cease existing business practices.

Significant judgment and certain estimates are required in determining the Company’s worldwide provision for income taxes. Future tax law changes and audit results may materially increase the Company’s prospective income tax expense.

The Company is subject to income taxation in the U.S. as well as numerous foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining the Company’s worldwide income tax provision and accordingly there are many transactions and computations for which the final income tax determination is uncertain. The Company considers many factors when evaluating and estimating its tax positions and tax benefits, which may require periodic adjustments, and which may not accurately anticipate actual outcomes. The Company periodically assesses its liabilities and contingencies for all tax years still subject to audit based on the most currently available information, which involves inherent uncertainty. The Company is routinely audited by income tax authorities in many tax jurisdictions. Although management believes the recorded tax estimates are reasonable, the ultimate outcome of any audit (or related litigation) could differ materially from amounts reflected in the Company’s income tax accruals. Additionally, the global income tax provision can be materially impacted due to foreign currency fluctuations against the U.S. dollar since a significant amount of the Company’s earnings are generated outside the United States. Lastly, it is possible that future income tax legislation may be enacted that could have a material impact on the Company’s worldwide income tax provision, cash tax liability, and effective tax rate beginning with the period that such legislation becomes enacted.

The Company’s failure to continue to successfully avoid, manage, defend, litigate and accrue for claims and litigation could negatively impact its results of operations or cash flows.
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The Company is exposed to and becomes involved in various litigation matters arising out of the ordinary routine conduct of its business, including, from time to time, actual or threatened litigation relating to such items as commercial transactions, product liability, workers compensation, arrangements between the Company and its distributors, franchisees or vendors, intellectual property claims and regulatory actions.

In addition, the Company is subject to environmental laws in each jurisdiction in which business is conducted. Some of the Company’s products incorporate substances that are regulated in some jurisdictions in which it conducts manufacturing operations. The Company has been and could be in the future subject to liability if it does not comply with these regulations. In addition, the Company is currently, and may in the future be held responsible for remedial investigations and clean-up costs resulting from the discharge of hazardous substances into the environment, including sites that have never been owned or operated by the Company but at which it has been identified as a potentially responsible party under federal and state environmental laws and regulations. Changes in environmental and other laws and regulations in both domestic and foreign jurisdictions could adversely affect the Company’s operations due to increased costs of compliance and potential liability for non-compliance.

The Company manufactures products, configures and installs security systems and performs various services that create exposure to product and professional liability claims and litigation. The failure of the Company’s products, systems and services to be properly manufactured, configured, installed, designed or delivered, resulting in personal injuries, property damage or business interruption could subject the Company to claims for damages. The Company has and is currently defending product liability claims, some of which have resulted in settlements or monetary judgments against the Company. The costs associated with defending ongoing or future product liability claims and payment of damages could be substantial. The Company’s reputation could also be adversely affected by such claims, whether or not successful.

There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to continue to successfully avoid, manage and defend such matters. In addition, given the inherent uncertainties in evaluating certain exposures, actual costs to be incurred in future periods may vary from the Company’s estimates for such contingent liabilities.

The Company’s products could be recalled.

The Company maintains an awareness of and responsibility for the potential health and safety impacts on its customers. The Company's product development processes include tollgates for product safety review, and extensive testing is conducted on product safety. Safety reviews are performed at various product development milestones, including a review of product labeling and marking to ensure safety and operational hazards are identified for the customer.

Despite safety and quality reviews, the Consumer Product Safety Commission or other applicable regulatory bodies may require, or the Company may voluntarily institute, the recall, repair or replacement of the Company’s products if those products are found not to be in compliance with applicable standards or regulations. A recall could increase the Company's costs and adversely impact its reputation.

The Company’s sales to government customers exposes it to business volatility and risks, including government budgeting cycles and appropriations, procurement regulations, governmental policy shifts, early termination of contracts, audits, investigations, sanctions and penalties.

The Company derives a portion of its revenues from contracts with the U.S. government, state and local governments and foreign governments. Government contractors must comply with specific procurement regulations and other requirements. These requirements, although customary in government contracts, could impact the Company’s performance and compliance costs, including limiting or delaying the Company’s ability to share information with its business partners, customers and investors, which may negatively impact the Company’s business and reputation.

The U.S. government may demand contract terms that are less favorable than standard arrangements with private sector customers and may have statutory, contractual or other legal rights to terminate contracts with the Company. For example, the U.S. government may have contract clauses that permit it to terminate any of the Company’s government contracts and subcontracts at its convenience, and procurement regulations permit termination for default based on the Company’s performance. In addition, changes in U.S. government budgetary priorities could lead to changes in the procurement environment, affecting availability of government contracting or funding opportunities. Changes in government procurement policy, priorities, regulations, technology initiatives and requirements, and/or contract award criteria may negatively impact the Company’s potential for growth in the government sector. Changes in government cybersecurity and system requirements could
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negatively impact the Company’s eligibility for the award of future contracts, negatively impacting the Company’s business and reputation.

Government contracts laws and regulations impose certain risks, and contracts are generally subject to audits, investigations and approval of policies, procedures and internal controls for compliance with procurement regulations and applicable law. If violations of law are found, they could result in civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, refund of a portion of fees received, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspensions or debarment from future government business. Each of these factors could negatively impact the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition, and reputation.

Other Risks

The Company’s results of operations and earnings may not meet guidance or expectations.

The Company’s results of operations and earnings may not meet guidance or expectations. The Company may provide public guidance on expected results of operations for future periods. This guidance is comprised of forward-looking statements subject to risks and uncertainties, including the risks and uncertainties described in this Form 10-K and in the Company’s other public filings and public statements, and is based necessarily on assumptions the Company makes at the time it provides such guidance. The Company’s guidance may not always be accurate. The Company may also choose to withdraw guidance, as it did in response to the uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic. If, in the future, the Company’s results of operations for a particular period do not meet its guidance or the expectations of investment analysts, the Company reduces its guidance for future periods, or the Company withdraws guidance, the market price of the Company’s common stock could decline significantly.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
As of January 2, 2021, the Company and its subsidiaries owned or leased significant facilities used for manufacturing, distribution and sales offices in 20 states and 18 countries. The Company leases its corporate headquarters in New Britain, Connecticut. The Company has 92 facilities including its corporate headquarters that are larger than 100,000 square feet, as follows:
OwnedLeasedTotal
Tools & Storage432265
Industrial15621
Security123
Corporate213
Total613192
The combined size of these facilities is approximately 25 million square feet. The buildings are in good condition, suitable for their intended use, adequate to support the Company’s operations, and generally fully utilized.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
In the normal course of business, the Company is involved in various lawsuits and claims, including product liability, environmental and distributor claims, and administrative proceedings. The Company does not expect that the resolution of these matters will have a materially adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The Company’s common stock is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. (“NYSE”) under the abbreviated ticker symbol “SWK”, and is a component of the Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Composite Stock Price Index. The Company’s high and low quarterly stock prices on the NYSE for the years ended January 2, 2021 and December 28, 2019 follow:
 20202019
 HighLowDividend Per
Common
Share
HighLowDividend Per
Common
Share
QUARTER:
First$172.53 $72.03 $0.69 $138.92 $115.69 $0.66 
Second$148.23 $92.13 $0.69 $153.08 $127.22 $0.66 
Third$166.25 $135.61 $0.70 $152.51 $128.85 $0.69 
Fourth$190.94 $161.48 $0.70 $167.76 $135.09 $0.69 
Total$2.78 $2.70 
As of February 5, 2021, there were 9,029 holders of record of the Company’s common stock. Information required by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K concerning securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans can be found under Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information about the Company’s purchases of equity securities that are registered by the Company pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the three months ended January 2, 2021:
 
2020Total Number Of Shares Purchased
(a)
Average Price Paid Per Share  Total Number Of Shares Purchased As Part Of A Publicly Announced Plan
or Program
Maximum Number Of Shares That May
Yet Be Purchased Under The Program
(b)
September 27 - October 313,494 $175.67   — 11,450,000 
November 1 - November 2811 $164.57   — 11,450,000 
November 29 - January 279,591 $176.76   — 11,450,000 
Total83,096 $176.71   — 11,450,000 
 
(a)The shares of common stock in this column were deemed surrendered to the Company by participants in various benefit plans of the Company to satisfy the participants’ taxes related to vesting or delivery of time-vesting restricted share units under those plans.
(b)On July 20, 2017, the Board of Directors approved a new repurchase program for up to 15.0 million shares of the Company’s common stock and terminated its previously approved repurchase program. As of January 2, 2021, the authorized shares available for repurchase under the new repurchase program totaled approximately 11.5 million shares. The currently authorized shares available for repurchase do not include approximately 3.6 million shares reserved and authorized for purchase under the Company’s previously approved repurchase program relating to a forward share purchase contract entered into in March 2015. Refer to Note J, Capital Stock, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 for further discussion.

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Stock Performance Graph
The following line graph compares the yearly percentage change in the Company’s cumulative total shareholder return for the last five years to that of the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Industrials Index. The Company has decided to use the S&P 500 Industrials Index, which is utilized by a number of the Company’s industrial peers, for the purpose of this disclosure.
https://cdn.kscope.io/ff269312c924697ca1739ff5c2622d0f-swk-20210102_g1.jpg
THE POINTS IN THE ABOVE TABLE ARE AS FOLLOWS:201520162017201820192020
Stanley Black & Decker$100.00 $109.65 $165.01 $117.68 $167.54 $183.69 
S&P 500$100.00 $111.95 $136.38 $129.28 $171.90 $202.96 
S&P 500 Industrials$100.00 $110.16 $135.19 $130.05 $174.00 $213.76 
The comparison assumes $100 invested at the closing price on January 2, 2016 in the Company’s common stock, S&P 500 Index, and S&P 500 Industrials Index. Total return assumes reinvestment of dividends.   

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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Acquisitions and divestitures completed by the Company during the five-year period presented below affect comparability of results. Refer to Note E, Acquisitions and Investments, and Note T, Divestitures, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 and prior year 10-K filings for further information.
(Millions of Dollars, Except Per Share Amounts)2020 (a)2019 (b)2018 (c)2017 (d)2016
Net sales$14,535 $14,442 $13,982 $12,967 $11,594 
Net Earnings Attributable to Common Shareowners$1,210 $956 $605 $1,227 $968 
Earnings per share of common stock:
Basic$7.85 $6.44 $4.06 $8.20 $6.63 
Diluted$7.77 $6.35 $3.99 $8.05 $6.53 
Percent of net sales:
Cost of sales65.8 %66.7 %65.3 %63.1 %63.2 %
Selling, general and administrative(e)21.3 %21.1 %22.7 %23.1 %22.7 %
Other, net1.8 %1.7 %2.1 %2.1 %1.6 %
Restructuring charges0.6 %1.1 %1.1 %0.4 %0.4 %
Interest, net1.4 %1.6 %1.5 %1.4 %1.5 %
Earnings before income taxes and equity interest8.7 %7.8 %7.3 %11.8 %10.6 %
Net Earnings Attributable to Common Shareowners8.3 %6.6 %4.3 %9.5 %8.3 %
Balance sheet data:
Total assets(f)$23,566 $20,597 $19,408 $19,098 $15,655 
Long-term debt, including current maturities$4,245 $3,180 $3,822 $3,806 $3,806 
Stanley Black & Decker, Inc.’s shareowners’ equity$11,060 $9,136 $7,836 $8,302 $6,374 
Ratios:
Total debt to total capital27.7 %27.8 %34.9 %31.5 %37.4 %
Income tax rate3.3 %14.2 %40.7 %19.7 %21.3 %
Common stock data:
Dividends per share$2.78 $2.70 $2.58 $2.42 $2.26 
Equity per basic share at year-end$70.40 $60.97 $53.07 $55.20 $42.80 
Market price per share — high$190.94 $167.76 $175.91 $170.03 $125.78 
Market price per share — low$72.03 $115.69 $108.45 $115.75 $90.14 
Weighted-average shares outstanding (in 000’s):
Basic154,176 148,365 148,919 149,629 146,041 
Diluted155,861 150,558 151,643 152,449 148,207 
Other information:
Average number of employees(g)62,606 61,755 60,785 57,076 53,231 
Shareowners of record at end of year9,064 9,360 9,727 10,014 10,313 

(a)The Company's 2020 results include $400 million of pre-tax charges related to a cost reduction program, loss on extinguishment of debt, inventory step-up charges, deal costs, Security business transformation and margin resiliency initiatives, and a net loss related to the sales of businesses, partially offset by a release of a contingent consideration liability relating to the CAM acquisition. As a result, as a percentage of Net sales, Cost of sales was 49 basis points higher, Selling, general, & administrative was 121 basis points higher, Other, net was 6 basis points higher, Restructuring charges was 57 basis points higher, and Earnings before income taxes and equity interest was 275 basis points lower. The Company also recorded a tax benefit of $211 million, which is comprised of a $119 million one-time tax benefit associated with a supply chain reorganization and a $92 million tax benefit of the above pre-tax charges. In addition, the Company's share of MTD's net earnings included an after-tax charge of approximately $10 million. Overall, the amounts described above resulted in a decrease to the Company's 2020 Net earnings attributable to common shareowners of $199 million (or $1.27 per diluted share).
(b)The Company's 2019 results include $363 million of pre-tax charges related to restructuring, deal and integration costs, loss on extinguishment of debt, Security business transformation and margin resiliency initiatives, and a gain on a sale of a business. As a result, as a percentage of Net sales, Cost of sales was 27 basis points higher, Selling, general, & administrative was 97 basis points higher, Other, net was 21 basis points higher, Restructuring charges was 106 basis points higher, and Earnings before income taxes and equity interest was 251 basis points lower. In addition, the
25


Company's share of MTD's net earnings included an after-tax charge of approximately $24 million. Overall, the amounts described above resulted in a decrease to the Company's 2019 Net earnings attributable to common shareowners of $309 million (or $2.05 per diluted share).
(c)The Company's 2018 results include $450 million of pre-tax charges related to acquisitions, an environmental remediation settlement, a non-cash fair value adjustment, a cost reduction program, an incremental freight charge related to a service provider's bankruptcy, and a loss related to a previously divested business. As a result, as a percentage of Net sales, Cost of sales was 47 basis points higher, Selling, general, & administrative was 113 basis points higher, Other, net was 77 basis points higher, Restructuring charges was 84 basis points higher, and Earnings before income taxes was 322 basis points lower. The Company also recorded a net tax charge of $181 million, which is comprised of charges related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("the Act"), partially offset by the tax benefit of the above pre-tax charges. Overall, the amounts described above resulted in a decrease to the Company's 2018 Net earnings attributable to common shareowners of $631 million (or $4.16 per diluted share).
(d)The Company's 2017 results include $156 million of pre-tax acquisition-related charges and a $264 million pre-tax gain on sales of businesses, primarily related to the divestiture of the mechanical security businesses. As a result, as a percentage of Net sales, Cost of sales was 36 basis points higher, Selling, general, & administrative was 29 basis points higher, Other, net was 45 basis points higher, Restructuring charges was 11 basis points higher, and Earnings before income taxes was 83 basis points higher. The net tax benefit of the acquisition-related charges and gain on sales of businesses was $7 million. Income taxes for 2017 also includes a one-time net tax charge of $24 million related to the Act. Overall, the acquisition-related charges, gain on sales of businesses, and one-time net tax charge related to the Act resulted in a net increase to the Company's 2017 Net earnings attributable to common shareowners of $91 million (or $0.59 per diluted share).
(e)SG&A is inclusive of the Provision for credit losses.
(f)In the first quarter of 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) ("new lease standard") utilizing the transition method, which allowed the new lease standard to be applied as of the adoption date with no adjustment for periods prior to fiscal year 2019.  As a result, total assets as of January 2, 2021 and as of December 28, 2019 reflect a lease right-of-use asset of approximately $523 million and $535 million, respectively.
(g)The average number of employees includes temporary contractors.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The financial and business analysis below provides information which the Company believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of its consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows. This financial and business analysis should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes. All references to “Notes” in this Item 7 refer to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report.
The following discussion and certain other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K contain statements reflecting the Company’s views about its future performance that constitute “forward-looking statements” under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about the industry and markets in which the Company operates as well as management’s beliefs and assumptions. Any statements contained herein (including without limitation statements to the effect that Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. or its management “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “plans” and similar expressions) that are not statements of historical fact should be considered forward-looking statements. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. There are a number of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements. These factors include, without limitation, those set forth, or incorporated by reference, below under the heading “Cautionary Statements Under The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act Of 1995.” The Company does not intend to update publicly any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Strategic Objectives
The Company continues to pursue a growth and acquisition strategy, which involves industry, geographic and customer diversification to foster sustainable revenue, earnings and cash flow growth, and employ the following strategic framework in pursuit of its vision to deliver top-quartile financial performance, become known as one of the world’s leading innovators and elevate its commitment to social responsibility:
Continue organic growth momentum by leveraging the SBD Operating Model to drive innovation and commercial excellence, while diversifying toward higher-growth, higher-margin businesses;
Be selective and operate in markets where brand is meaningful, the value proposition is definable and sustainable through innovation, and global cost leadership is achievable; and
Pursue acquisitive growth on multiple fronts by building upon its existing global tools platform, expanding the Industrial platform in Engineered Fastening and Infrastructure, consolidating the commercial electronic security industry, and pursuing adjacencies with sound industrial logic.
Execution of the above strategy has resulted in approximately $11.5 billion of acquisitions since 2002 (excluding the Black & Decker merger), a 20 percent investment in MTD Holdings Inc. ("MTD"), several divestitures, improved efficiency in the supply chain and manufacturing operations, and enhanced investments in organic growth, enabled by cash flow generation and increased debt capacity. In addition, the Company's continued focus on diversification and organic growth has resulted in improved financial results and an increase in its global presence. The Company also remains focused on leveraging its SBD Operating Model to deliver success in the 2020s and beyond. The latest evolution of the SBD Operating Model builds on the strength of the Company's past while embracing changes in the external environment to ensure the Company has the right skillsets, incorporates technology advances in all areas, maintains operational excellence, drives efficiency in business processes and resiliency into its culture, delivers extreme innovation and ensures the customer experience is world class. The operating model underpins the Company's ability to deliver above-market organic growth with margin expansion, maintain efficient levels of selling, general and administrative expenses ("SG&A") and deliver top-quartile asset efficiency.
The Company’s long-term financial objectives remain as follows:
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4-6% organic revenue growth;
10-12% total revenue growth;
10-12% total EPS growth (7-9% organically) excluding acquisition-related charges;
Free cash flow equal to, or exceeding, net income;
Sustain 10+ working capital turns; and
Cash Flow Return On Investment ("CFROI") between 12-15%.
In terms of capital allocation, the Company remains committed, over time, to returning approximately 50% of free cash flow to shareholders through a strong and growing dividend as well as opportunistically repurchasing shares. The remaining free cash flow (approximately 50%) will be deployed towards acquisitions.
COVID-19 Pandemic

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has adversely affected the Company's workforce and operations, as well as the operations of its customers, distributors, suppliers and contractors. The COVID-19 pandemic has also resulted in significant volatility and uncertainty in the markets in which the Company operates. To successfully navigate through this unprecedented period, the Company has remained focused on the following key priorities:

Ensuring the health and safety of its employees and supply chain partners;
Maintaining business continuity and financial strength and stability;
Serving its customers as they provide essential products and services to the world; and
Doing its part to mitigate the impact of the virus across the globe.

To respond to the volatile and uncertain environment, the Company implemented a comprehensive cost reduction and efficiency program, which delivered approximately $500 million of savings in 2020 and is expected to deliver net savings of approximately $125 million in 2021. Cost actions executed under the program included headcount reductions, furloughs, reduced employee work schedules, a voluntary retirement program, and footprint rationalizations. The Company has taken steps to make some of the cost actions permanent while certain employees were returned to full-time status. This ensures the sustainability of the cost reduction program into 2021 while providing more employment stability for the Company's remaining associates.

The program’s primary focus was to: (a) adjust the Company’s supply chain and manufacturing labor base to match the demand environment; (b) substantially reduce indirect spending; (c) reduce staffing, compensation and benefits in a manner that ensured the Company was prepared to respond to changes in demand; and (d) capture the significant raw material deflation opportunity from 2020. In addition, the Company reduced capital expenditures in 2020.

As a result of these actions, the Company continues to believe it is in a strong financial position and has significant flexibility to continue navigating this dynamic period. However, the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company's business, results of operations, or liquidity remains uncertain. Refer to Financial Condition below and Item 1A. Risk Factors in Part I of this Form 10-K for further discussion.

Share Repurchases

In April 2018, the Company repurchased 1,399,732 shares of common stock for approximately $200 million. In July 2018, the Company repurchased 2,086,792 shares of common stock for approximately $300 million.

Acquisitions and Investments
On February 24, 2020, the Company acquired Consolidated Aerospace Manufacturing, LLC ("CAM"), an industry-leading manufacturer of specialty fasteners and components for the aerospace and defense markets. The acquisition further diversifies the Company's presence in the industrial markets and expands its portfolio of specialty fasteners in the aerospace and defense markets.
On March 8, 2019, the Company acquired the International Equipment Solutions Attachments businesses, Paladin and Pengo, ("IES Attachments"), manufacturers of high quality, performance-driven heavy equipment attachment tools for off-highway applications. The acquisition further diversified the Company's presence in the industrial markets, expanded its portfolio of attachment solutions and provided a meaningful platform for growth.
On January 2, 2019, the Company acquired a 20 percent interest in MTD, a privately held global manufacturer of outdoor power equipment. MTD manufactures and distributes gas-powered lawn tractors, zero turn mowers, walk behind mowers,
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snow throwers, trimmers, chain saws, utility vehicles and other outdoor power equipment. Under the terms of the agreement, the Company has the option to acquire the remaining 80 percent of MTD beginning on July 1, 2021 and ending on January 2, 2029. In the event the option is exercised, the companies have agreed to a valuation multiple based on MTD’s 2018 Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization ("EBITDA"), with an equitable sharing arrangement for future EBITDA growth. The investment in MTD increases the Company's presence in the greater than $20 billion lawn and garden segment and enables the two companies to work together to pursue revenue and cost opportunities, improve operational efficiency, and introduce new and innovative products for professional and residential outdoor equipment customers, utilizing each company's respective portfolios of strong brands.
On April 2, 2018, the Company acquired Nelson Fastener Systems (“Nelson”), which excluded Nelson's automotive stud welding business. This acquisition, which has been integrated into the Engineered Fastening business, was complementary to the Company's product offerings, enhanced its presence in the general industrial end markets, and expanded its portfolio of highly-engineered fastening solutions.
On March 9, 2017, the Company acquired the Tools business of Newell Brands ("Newell Tools") which included the highly attractive industrial cutting, hand tool and power tool accessory brands IRWIN® and LENOX®. The acquisition enhanced the Company’s position within the global tools & storage industry and broadened the Company’s product offerings and solutions to customers and end users, particularly within power tool accessories.
On March 8, 2017, the Company purchased the Craftsman® brand from Sears Holdings Corporation (“Sears Holdings”). The acquisition provided the Company with the rights to develop, manufacture and sell Craftsman®-branded products in non-Sears Holdings channels. The acquisition significantly increased the availability of Craftsman®-branded products to consumers in previously underpenetrated channels, enhanced innovation, and added manufacturing jobs in the U.S. to support growth.

Refer to Note E, Acquisitions and Investments, for further discussion.

Divestitures
On May 30, 2019, the Company sold its Sargent and Greenleaf mechanical locks business within the Security segment. On February 22, 2017, the Company sold the majority of its mechanical security businesses, which included the commercial hardware brands of Best Access, phi Precision and GMT. These divestitures allow the Company to invest in other areas of the Company that fit into its long-term growth strategy.
The Company has also divested several smaller businesses in recent years that did not fit into its long-term strategic objectives.

Refer to Note T, Divestitures, for further discussion of the Company's divestitures.

Certain Items Impacting Earnings

Throughout MD&A, the Company has provided a discussion of the outlook and results both inclusive and exclusive of acquisition-related and other charges. The results and measures, including gross profit and segment profit, on a basis excluding these amounts are considered relevant to aid analysis and understanding of the Company's results aside from the material impact of these items. These amounts are as follows:

2020

The Company reported $400 million in pre-tax charges during 2020, which were comprised of the following:

$71 million reducing Gross Profit pertaining to inventory step-up charges, a cost reduction program and facility-related costs;
$176 million in SG&A primarily for a cost reduction program, Security business transformation and margin resiliency initiatives;
$9 million in Other, net primarily related to a cost reduction program, loss on interest rate swaps in connection with the extinguishment of debt, and deal transactions costs, partially offset by a release of a contingent consideration liability relating to the CAM acquisition;
$14 million net loss related to the sales of businesses;
$83 million in Restructuring charges pertaining to severance and facility closures; and
$47 million related to a loss on the extinguishment of debt.
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The tax effect on the above net charges was approximately $92 million. The Company also recorded a one-time tax benefit of $119 million associated with a supply chain reorganization. In addition, the Company's share of MTD's net earnings included an after-tax charge of approximately $10 million related primarily to restructuring charges. The amounts above resulted in net after-tax charges of $199 million, or $1.27 per diluted share.

2019

The Company reported $363 million in pre-tax charges during 2019, which were comprised of the following:

$40 million reducing Gross Profit pertaining to facility-related and inventory step-up charges;
$139 million in SG&A primarily for integration-related costs, Security business transformation and margin resiliency initiatives;
$30 million in Other, net primarily related to deal transaction costs;
$17 million gain related to the sale of the Sargent & Greenleaf business;
$153 million in Restructuring charges pertaining to severance and facility closures associated with a cost reduction program; and
$18 million related to a non-cash loss on the extinguishment of debt.

The tax effect on the above net charges was approximately $78 million. In addition, the Company's share of MTD's net earnings included an after-tax charge of approximately $24 million primarily related to an inventory step-up adjustment. The amounts above resulted in net after-tax charges of $309 million, or $2.05 per diluted share.

2018

The Company reported $450 million in pre-tax charges during 2018, which were comprised of the following:

$66 million reducing Gross Profit primarily pertaining to inventory step-up charges for the Nelson acquisition and an incremental freight charge due to nonperformance by a third-party service provider;
$158 million in SG&A primarily for integration-related costs, consulting fees, and a non-cash fair value adjustment;
$108 million in Other, net primarily related to deal transaction costs and a settlement with the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA");
$1 million related to a previously divested business; and
$117 million in Restructuring charges which primarily related to a cost reduction program.

The Company also recorded a net tax charge of $181 million, which was comprised of charges related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("the Act") partially offset by the tax benefit of the above pre-tax charges. The above amounts resulted in net after-tax charges of $631 million, or $4.16 per diluted share.

Driving Further Profitable Growth by Fully Leveraging Our Core Franchises

Each of the Company's franchises share common attributes: they have world-class brands and attractive growth characteristics, they are scalable and defensible, they can differentiate through innovation, and they are powered by the SBD Operating Model.
The Tools & Storage business is the tool company to own, with strong brands, proven innovation, global scale, and a broad offering of power tools, hand tools, accessories, and storage & digital products across many channels in both developed and developing markets.
The Engineered Fastening business is a highly profitable, GDP+ growth business offering highly engineered, value-added innovative solutions with recurring revenue attributes and global scale.
The Security business, with its attractive recurring revenue, presents a significant margin accretion opportunity over the longer term and has historically provided a stable revenue stream through economic cycles, is a gateway into the digital world and an avenue to capitalize on rapid market or societal changes. Security has embarked on a business transformation which will apply technology to lower its cost to serve and create new commercial offerings for its small to medium enterprise and large key account customers.
While diversifying the business portfolio through strategic acquisitions remains important, management recognizes that the core franchises described above are important foundations that continue to provide strong cash flow and growth prospects. Management is committed to growing these businesses through innovative product development, brand support, continued investment in emerging markets and a sharp focus on global cost competitiveness.
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Continuing to Invest in the Stanley Black & Decker Brands
The Company has a strong portfolio of brands associated with high-quality products including STANLEY®, BLACK+DECKER®, DEWALT®, FLEXVOLT®, IRWIN®, LENOX®, CRAFTSMAN®, PORTER-CABLE®, BOSTITCH®, PROTO®, MAC TOOLS®, FACOM®, AeroScout®, Powers®, LISTA®, Vidmar®, SONITROL®, and GQ®. Among the Company's most valuable assets, STANLEY®, BLACK+DECKER® and DEWALT® are recognized as three of the world's great brands, while CRAFTSMAN® is recognized as a premier American brand.
The Company’s initial strategic marketing plan for 2020 was to put brand awareness into overdrive through continued sponsorships and a live presence at nearly 500 tried-and-true sporting events, including NASCAR and NHRA racing, Major League Baseball (“MLB”) and global soccer with English Premier League (“EPL”) and FC Barcelona (“FCB”). In March 2020, COVID-19 brought a halt to live sporting events worldwide and with the stands virtually empty, the Company revised its strategic marketing plan in order to bring a virtual brand experience to life.
Through the power of Zoom, the Company provided fans a new kind of venue by hosting virtual VIP and customer engagement events. The Company brought the owners, the players, the drivers and the influencers together online to engage audiences and reinforce its name brands, including CRAFTSMAN®, DEWALT® and STANLEY®.

In late spring and summer 2020, when sponsorship events like NASCAR, MLB, EPL and FCB resumed with millions of fans tuning in from the comfort of home, the Company’s brands were there with strong visibility thanks to prime stadium signage placement and car wraps that put CRAFTSMAN®, DEWALT®, BLACK+DECKER®, IRWIN®, MAC TOOLS® and STANLEY® front, center and in the lead.
The above marketing initiatives highlight the Company's strong emphasis on brand building and commercial support, which has resulted in more than 300 billion global brand impressions from digital and traditional advertising and strong brand awareness. The Company will continue allocating its brand and advertising spend wisely to capture the emerging digital landscape, while continuing to evolve proven marketing programs to deliver famous global brands that are deeply committed to societal improvement, along with transformative technologies to build relevant and meaningful 1:1 customer, consumer, employee and shareholder relationships in support of the Company's long-term vision.
The SBD Operating Model: Winning in the 2020s
Over the past 15 years, the Company has successfully leveraged its proven and continually evolving operating model to focus the organization to sustain top-quartile performance, resulting in asset efficiency, above-market organic growth and expanding operating margins. In its first evolution, the Stanley Fulfillment System ("SFS") focused on streamlining operations, which helped reduce lead times, realize synergies during acquisition integrations, and mitigate material and energy price inflation. In 2015, the Company launched a refreshed and revitalized SFS operating system, entitled SFS 2.0, to drive from a more programmatic growth mentality to a true organic growth culture by more deeply embedding breakthrough innovation and commercial excellence into its businesses, and at the same time, becoming a significantly more digitally-enabled enterprise. Entering into 2020 and recognizing the changing dynamics of the world in which the Company operates, including the acceleration of technological change, geopolitical instability and the changing nature of work, the Company launched the SBD Operating Model: Winning in the 2020s.

At the center of the model is the concept of the interrelationship between people and technology. The remaining four categories are: Performance Resiliency; Extreme Innovation; Operations Excellence and Extraordinary Customer Experience. Each of these elements co-exists synergistically with the others in a systems-based approach.

People and Technology
This pillar emphasizes the Company's belief that the right combination of digitally proficient people applying technology such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, advanced analytics, Internet of Things and others in focused ways can be an enormous source of value creation and sustainability for the Company. It also brings to light the changing nature of work and the talent and skillsets required for individuals and institutions to thrive in the future. With technology infiltrating the workplace at an increasingly rapid pace, the Company believes that the winners in the 2020s will invest heavily in reskilling, upskilling and lifelong learning with an emphasis on the places where people and technology intersect. In other words, technology can make humans more powerful and productive if, and only if, humans know how to apply the technology to maximum advantage. The Company has created plans and programs, as well as a new leadership model to ensure people have the right skills, tools and mindsets to thrive in this era. The ability for employees to embrace technology, learn and relearn new skills and take advantage of the opportunities presented in this new world will be critical to the Company's success.

Performance Resiliency
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The Company views performance resiliency as the agility, flexibility and adaptability to sustain strong performance regardless of the operating environment conditions, which requires planning for the unexpected and anticipating exogenous volatility as the new normal. Technology, applied to key business processes, products and business models, will be a key enabler for value creation and performance resiliency as the Company executes sustainable, ongoing transformation across the enterprise.

Extreme Innovation
The Company has a historically strong foundation in innovation, launching more than 1,000 products a year, including breakthroughs such as DEWALT Flexvolt, Atomic and Xtreme. In recent years, the Company has expanded its innovation-focused internal teams and external partnerships, but now it is growing that innovation ecosystem at a rapid pace, expanding the number of external collaborations with start-ups and entrepreneurs, academic institutions, research labs and others. This innovation culture, which includes a focus on social impact in addition to the Company's traditional product and customer focus, enables the Company to introduce products to market faster and reimagine how to operate in today’s technology-enabled, fast-paced world.

Operations Excellence    
An intense focus on operations excellence and asset efficiency is mandatory in a dynamic world in which the bar for competitiveness is always moving higher. To help maintain the Company's edge, a much more agile, adaptable and technology-enabled supply chain is necessary to manufacture closer to its customers. This “Make Where We Sell” strategy will improve customer responsiveness, lower lead times, reduce costs and mitigate geopolitical and currency risk while facilitating major improvements in carbon footprint.

Extraordinary Customer Experience
Customers are increasingly demanding world-class experiences from their brands and expectations for execution at the customer level are growing every day. It is no longer sufficient to have great products on the shelf or in the catalog. The Company knows that to sustain market share growth, it needs to evolve and adapt to provide the types of experiences that customers now expect. Each of the Company's businesses evaluates and works to systematically improve its various customer experiences and acts on customer insights to continuously improve to the extraordinary level. As previously noted, the interaction between people and technology will define success in this area.

Leveraging the SBD Operating Model, the Company is building a culture in which it strives to become known as one of the world’s great innovative companies by embracing the current environment of rapid innovation and digital transformation. The Company continues to build a vast innovation focused ecosystem to pursue faster innovation and to remain aware of and open to new technologies and advances by leveraging both internal initiatives and external partnerships. The innovation ecosystem used in concert with the SBD Operating Model is anticipated to allow the Company to apply innovation to its core processes in manufacturing and back office functions to reduce operating costs and inefficiencies, develop core and breakthrough product innovations within each of its businesses, and pursue disruptive business models to either push into new markets or change existing business models before competition or new market entrants capture the opportunity. The Company continues to make progress towards this vision, as evidenced by the creation of Innovation Everywhere, a program that encourages and empowers all employees to implement value creation and cost savings using collaborative and innovative solutions, breakthrough innovation teams in each business, the Stanley Ventures group, which invests capital in new and emerging start-ups in core focus areas, the Techstars partnership, which selects start-ups from around the world with the goal of bringing breakthrough technologies to market, the Manufactory 4.0, which is the Company's epicenter for Industry 4.0 technology development and partnership, and STANLEY X, a Silicon Valley based team, which is building its own set of disruptive initiatives and exploring new business models.

The Company has made a significant commitment to the SBD Operating Model and management believes that its success will be characterized by continued asset efficiency, organic growth in the 4-6% range in the long-term as well as expanded operating margin rates over the next 3 to 5 years as the Company leverages the growth and pursues structural cost reductions with the margin resiliency initiatives.

The Company believes that the SBD Operating Model will serve as a powerful value driver in the years ahead, ensuring the Company is positioned to win in the 2020s by developing and obtaining the right people and technology to deliver performance resiliency, extreme innovation, operations excellence and an extraordinary customer experience. The operating model, in concert with the Company's innovation ecosystem, will enable the Company to change as rapidly as the external environment which directly supports achievement of the Company's long-term financial objectives, including its vision, and further enables its shareholder-friendly capital allocation approach, which has served the Company well in the past and will continue to do so in the future.

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Outlook for 2021
This outlook discussion is intended to provide broad insight into the Company’s near-term earnings and cash flow generation prospects. The Company expects 2021 diluted earnings per share to approximate $9.15 to $9.85 ($9.70 to $10.30 excluding acquisition-related and other charges). This range is $0.40 wider than the Company's traditional guide recognizing that while visibility has improved, the operating environment remains dynamic. Free cash flow conversion, defined as free cash flow divided by net income, is expected to approximate 100%.

The difference between the 2021 diluted earnings per share outlook and the diluted earnings per share range, excluding charges, is $0.45 - $0.55, consisting of acquisition-related and other charges. These forecasted charges primarily relate to facility moves, deal and integration costs and functional transformation initiatives.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Below is a summary of the Company’s operating results at the consolidated level, followed by an overview of business segment performance.

Terminology: The term “organic” is utilized to describe results aside from the impacts of foreign currency fluctuations, acquisitions during their initial 12 months of ownership, and divestitures. This ensures appropriate comparability to operating results of prior periods.

Net Sales: Net sales were $14.535 billion in 2020 compared to $14.442 billion in 2019, representing an increase of 1% driven by a 2% increase from acquisitions, primarily CAM, and a 1% increase in price, partially offset by pandemic-related volume decreases of 2%. Organic growth of 10% in the second half of 2020 and acquisitions more than offset first half pandemic related market impacts. Tools & Storage net sales increased 3% compared to 2019 due to 2% increases in both volume and price, partially offset by a decrease of 1% from foreign currency. Industrial net sales decreased 3% compared to 2019 primarily due to volume decreases of 15%, partially offset by acquisition growth of 12%. Security net sales declined 5% compared to 2019 as 1% increases in both price and small bolt-on commercial electronic security acquisitions were more than offset by a 5% decrease in volume and a 2% decrease from the sales of the Sargent & Greenleaf business and the commercial electronic security businesses in five countries in Europe and emerging markets.

Net sales were $14.442 billion in 2019 compared to $13.982 billion in 2018, representing an increase of 3% driven by organic growth of 3%, including a 2% increase in volume and 1% increase in price. Acquisitions, primarily IES Attachments, increased sales by 2%, while the impact of foreign currency decreased sales by 2%. Tools & Storage net sales increased 3% compared to 2018 due to increases in volume and price of 4% and 1%, respectively, partially offset by a 2% decrease from foreign currency. Industrial net sales increased 11% compared to 2018 primarily due to acquisition growth of 16%, partially offset by decreases of 3% from lower volumes and 2% from foreign currency. Security net sales declined 2% compared to 2018 as 1% increases in both price and small bolt-on commercial electronic security acquisitions were more than offset by a 3% decrease due to foreign currency and a 1% decrease from the sale of the Sargent & Greenleaf business.

Gross Profit: The Company reported gross profit of $4.968 billion, or 34.2% of net sales, in 2020 compared to $4.806 billion, or 33.3% of net sales, in 2019. Acquisition-related and other charges, which reduced gross profit, were $71.2 million in 2020 and $39.7 million in 2019. Excluding these charges, gross profit was 34.7% of net sales in 2020 compared to 33.5% in 2019, driven by productivity, margin resiliency initiatives and price realization.

The Company reported gross profit of $4.806 billion, or 33.3% of net sales, in 2019 compared to $4.851 billion, or 34.7% of net sales, in 2018. Acquisition-related and other charges, which reduced gross profit, were $39.7 million in 2019 and $65.7 million in 2018. Excluding these charges, gross profit was 33.5% of net sales in 2019, compared to 35.2% in 2018, as volume, productivity and price were more than offset by tariffs, commodity inflation and foreign exchange.

SG&A Expense: Selling, general and administrative expenses, inclusive of the provision for credit losses (“SG&A”), were $3.090 billion, or 21.3% of net sales, in 2020 compared to $3.041 billion, or 21.1% of net sales, in 2019. Within SG&A, acquisition-related and other charges totaled $176.1 million in 2020 and $139.5 million in 2019. Excluding these charges, SG&A was 20.0% of net sales in 2020 compared to 20.1% in 2019, primarily reflecting the benefits of cost management programs implemented in response to the global pandemic, partially offset by growth investments to pursue market recoveries and opportunities across the businesses that have emerged during the pandemic.

SG&A expenses were $3.041 billion, or 21.1% of net sales, in 2019 compared to $3.172 billion, or 22.7% of net sales, in 2018. Acquisition-related and other charges totaled $139.5 million in 2019 and $157.8 million in 2018. Excluding these charges, SG&A was 20.1% of net sales in 2019 compared to 21.6% in 2018, primarily reflecting disciplined cost management and actions taken in response to external headwinds.

Distribution center costs (i.e. warehousing and fulfillment facility and associated labor costs) are classified within SG&A. This classification may differ from other companies who may report such expenses within cost of sales. Due to diversity in practice, to the extent the classification of these distribution costs differs from other companies, the Company’s gross margins may not be comparable. Such distribution costs classified in SG&A amounted to $347.8 million in 2020, $326.7 million in 2019 and $316.0 million in 2018.

Corporate Overhead: The corporate overhead element of SG&A, which is not allocated to the business segments, amounted to $297.7 million, or 2.0% of net sales, in 2020, $229.5 million, or 1.6% of net sales, in 2019 and $202.8 million, or 1.5% of net sales, in 2018. Excluding acquisition-related charges of $60.3 million in 2020, $23.4 million in 2019, and $12.7 million in
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2018, the corporate overhead element of SG&A was 1.6% of net sales in 2020, compared to 1.4% of net sales in 2019 and 2018. The increase in 2020 compared to 2019 and 2018 was primarily due to higher employee-related costs.

Other, net: Other, net totaled $262.8 million in 2020 compared to $249.1 million in 2019 and $287.0 million in 2018. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges, Other, net totaled $253.8 million, $218.9 million, and $178.9 million in 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively. The year-over-year increase in 2020 was driven by higher intangible asset amortization and negative impacts from foreign currency. The year-over-year increase in 2019 was driven by higher intangible asset amortization and a favorable resolution of a prior claim in 2018.

Loss (Gain) on Sales of Businesses: During 2020, the Company reported a $13.5 million net loss primarily relating to the sale of a product line within Oil & Gas. During 2019, the Company reported a $17.0 million gain relating to the sale of the Sargent and Greenleaf business. During 2018, the Company reported a $0.8 million loss relating to a previously divested business.

Loss on Debt Extinguishments: During the fourth quarter of 2020, the Company extinguished $1.154 billion of its notes payable and recognized a $46.9 million pre-tax loss primarily due to a make-whole premium payment. In 2019, the Company extinguished $750 million of its notes payable and recognized a $17.9 million pre-tax loss related to the write-off of deferred financing fees.

Interest, net: Net interest expense in 2020 was $205.1 million compared to $230.4 million in 2019 and $209.2 million in 2018. The decrease in 2020 compared to 2019 was primarily driven by lower U.S. interest rates and lower average balances relating to the Company's commercial paper borrowings, partially offset by lower interest income due to a decline in rates. The increase in net interest expense in 2019 versus 2018 was primarily driven by interest on the senior unsecured notes issued in November 2018 and lower interest income on deposits due to a decline in rates.

Income Taxes: On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was enacted. The CARES Act, among other things, includes provisions relating to refundable payroll tax credits, deferment of employer social security payments, net operating loss carryback periods, alternative minimum tax credit refunds, modifications to the net interest deduction limitations and technical corrections to tax depreciation methods for qualified improvement property. The CARES Act did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements in 2020. The Company continues to evaluate the potential impacts the CARES Act may have on its operations and consolidated financial statements in future periods.

The Company's effective tax rate was 3.3% in 2020, 14.2% in 2019, and 40.7% in 2018. Excluding the one-time tax benefit of $118.8 million recorded in the second quarter of 2020 to reverse a deferred tax liability previously established related to certain unremitted earnings of foreign subsidiaries not permanently reinvested as a result of initiating a supply chain reorganization, and the impact of divestitures and acquisition-related and other charges previously discussed, the effective tax rate in 2020 was 15.1%. This effective tax rate differs from the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily due to tax on foreign earnings at tax rates different than the U.S. rate, the re-measurement of uncertain tax position reserves, the tax benefit of equity compensation, and tax benefits arising from an increase in deferred tax assets associated with the Company’s supply chain reorganization and partial realignment of the Company's legal structure.

Excluding the impact of divestitures and acquisition-related and other charges previously discussed, the effective tax rate in 2019 was 16.0%. This effective tax rate differed from the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily due to a portion of the Company's earnings being realized in lower-taxed foreign jurisdictions and the favorable effective settlements of income tax audits.

The 2018 effective tax rate included net charges associated with the Act, which primarily related to the re-measurement of existing deferred tax balances, adjustments to the one-time transition tax, and the provision of deferred taxes on unremitted foreign earnings and profits for which the Company no longer asserted indefinite reinvestment. Excluding the impacts of the net charge related to the Act as well as the acquisition-related and other charges previously discussed, the effective tax rate in 2018 was 16.0%.  This effective tax rate differed from the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily due to a portion of the Company's earnings being realized in lower-taxed foreign jurisdictions and the favorable effective settlements of income tax audits.


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Business Segment Results
The Company’s reportable segments are aggregations of businesses that have similar products, services and end markets, among other factors. The Company utilizes segment profit which is defined as net sales minus cost of sales and SG&A inclusive of the provision for credit losses (aside from corporate overhead expense), and segment profit as a percentage of net sales to assess the profitability of each segment. Segment profit excludes the corporate overhead expense element of SG&A, other, net (inclusive of intangible asset amortization expense), gain or loss on sales of businesses, restructuring charges, loss on debt extinguishments, interest income, interest expense, income taxes and share of net earnings or losses of equity method investment. Corporate overhead is comprised of world headquarters facility expense, cost for the executive management team and expenses pertaining to certain centralized functions that benefit the entire Company but are not directly attributable to the businesses, such as legal and corporate finance functions. Refer to Note F, Goodwill and Intangible Assets, and Note O, Restructuring Charges, for the amount of intangible asset amortization expense and net restructuring charges, respectively, attributable to each segment.

The Company classifies its business into three reportable segments, which also represent its operating segments: Tools & Storage, Industrial and Security.
Tools & Storage:
The Tools & Storage segment is comprised of the Power Tools & Equipment ("PTE") and Hand Tools, Accessories & Storage ("HTAS") businesses. The PTE business includes both professional and consumer products. Professional products include professional grade corded and cordless electric power tools and equipment including drills, impact wrenches and drivers, grinders, saws, routers and sanders, as well as pneumatic tools and fasteners including nail guns, nails, staplers and staples, concrete and masonry anchors. Consumer products include corded and cordless electric power tools sold primarily under the BLACK+DECKER® brand, lawn and garden products, including hedge trimmers, string trimmers, lawn mowers, edgers and related accessories, and home products such as hand-held vacuums, paint tools and cleaning appliances. The HTAS business sells hand tools, power tool accessories and storage products. Hand tools include measuring, leveling and layout tools, planes, hammers, demolition tools, clamps, vises, knives, saws, chisels and industrial and automotive tools. Power tool accessories include drill bits, screwdriver bits, router bits, abrasives, saw blades and threading products. Storage products include tool boxes, sawhorses, medical cabinets and engineered storage solution products.
(Millions of Dollars)202020192018
Net sales$10,330 $10,062 $9,814 
Segment profit$1,842 $1,533 $1,393 
% of Net sales17.8 %15.2 %14.2 %
Tools & Storage net sales increased $267.6 million, or 3%, in 2020 compared to 2019 due to a 2% increase in both volume and price, partially offset by unfavorable currency of 1%. The 4% organic growth was driven by a strong second half organic performance of 18% from a consumer reconnection with the home and garden and a shift to eCommerce that emerged from the pandemic and was accelerated by a robust lineup of new and innovative products. Double digit growth was realized across all regions in the second half of 2020. For the full year, North America and Europe organic growth more than offset a decline in emerging markets.
Segment profit amounted to $1.842 billion, or 17.8% of net sales, in 2020 compared to $1.533 billion, or 15.2% of net sales, in 2019. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges of $46.4 million and $44.3 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively, segment profit amounted to 18.3% of net sales in 2020 compared to 15.7% in 2019, as volume, productivity, cost control and price were partially offset by new growth investments, tariffs and currency.

Tools & Storage net sales increased $248.1 million, or 3%, in 2019 compared to 2018 due to a 4% increase in volume and 1% increase in price, partially offset by unfavorable currency of 2%. The 5% organic growth was led by North America and Europe, more than offsetting a decline in emerging markets. North America organic growth was driven by the roll-out of the Craftsman brand and new product innovation, such as DEWALT Flexvolt, Atomic and Xtreme, partially offset by declines in Canada and industrial-focused businesses. Europe growth was supported by new products and successful commercial actions. The organic decline in emerging markets was driven by weak market conditions in Turkey, China and certain countries in Latin America, which more than offset the benefits from price, new product launches and e-commerce expansion.

Segment profit amounted to $1.533 billion, or 15.2% of net sales, in 2019 compared to $1.393 billion, or 14.2% of net sales, in 2018. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges of $44.3 million and $142.6 million in 2019 and 2018, respectively, segment profit amounted to 15.7% of net sales in 2019 compared to 15.6% in 2018, as the benefits from volume leverage, actions taken in response to external headwinds and price were partially offset by tariffs, commodity inflation, and foreign exchange.
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Industrial:
The Industrial segment is comprised of the Engineered Fastening and Infrastructure businesses. The Engineered Fastening business primarily sells highly engineered components such as fasteners, fittings and various engineered products, which are designed for specific application across multiple verticals. The product lines include externally threaded fasteners, blind rivets and tools, blind inserts and tools, drawn arc weld studs and systems, engineered plastic and mechanical fasteners, self-piercing riveting systems, precision nut running systems, micro fasteners, high-strength structural fasteners, axel swage, latches, heat shields, pins, and couplings. The Infrastructure business consists of the Attachment Tools and Oil & Gas product lines. Attachment Tools sells hydraulic tools and high quality, performance-driven heavy equipment attachment tools for off-highway applications. Oil & Gas sells and rents custom pipe handling, joint welding and coating equipment used in the construction of large and small diameter pipelines and provides pipeline inspection services.
(Millions of Dollars)202020192018
Net sales$2,353 $2,435 $2,188 
Segment profit$226 $334 $320 
% of Net sales9.6 %13.7 %14.6 %
Industrial net sales decreased $82.0 million, or 3%, in 2020 compared to 2019, due to pandemic-related market declines in volume of 15%, partially offset by acquisition growth of 12%. Engineered Fastening organic revenues decreased 15% for the full year, due to the significant impacts from the pandemic to automotive and general industrial production. Infrastructure organic revenues were down 15% from lower volumes in Attachment Tools and a sharp decline in Oil & Gas pipeline construction. The deepest segment organic revenue decline was the second quarter and each quarter thereafter delivered stronger revenue as markets recovered.

Segment profit totaled $225.6 million, or 9.6% of net sales, in 2020 compared to $334.1 million, or 13.7% of net sales, in 2019. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges of $67.1 million and $25.8 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively, segment profit amounted to 12.4% of net sales in 2020 compared to 14.8% in 2019, as productivity gains and cost control were more than offset by market driven volume declines.

Industrial net sales increased $246.9 million, or 11%, in 2019 compared to 2018, due to acquisition growth of 16%, partially offset by declines of 3% in volume and 2% from foreign currency. Engineered Fastening organic revenues decreased 3% as fastener penetration gains were more than offset by inventory reductions and lower production levels within industrial and automotive customers. Infrastructure organic revenues were down 2%, as growth within Oil & Gas was offset by declines in hydraulic tools from a difficult scrap steel market.

Segment profit totaled $334.1 million, or 13.7% of net sales, in 2019 compared to $319.8 million, or 14.6% of net sales, in 2018. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges of $25.8 million and $26.0 million in 2019 and 2018, respectively, segment profit amounted to 14.8% of net sales in 2019 compared to 15.8% in 2018, as productivity gains and cost control were more than offset by lower volume and externally driven cost inflation.

Security:
The Security segment is comprised of the Convergent Security Solutions ("CSS") and the Mechanical Access Solutions ("MAS") businesses. The CSS business designs, supplies and installs commercial electronic security systems and provides electronic security services, including alarm monitoring, video surveillance, fire alarm monitoring, systems integration and system maintenance. Purchasers of these systems typically contract for ongoing security systems monitoring and maintenance at the time of initial equipment installation. The business also sells healthcare solutions, which include asset tracking, infant protection, pediatric protection, patient protection, wander management, fall management, and emergency call products. The MAS business primarily sells automatic doors.
(Millions of Dollars)202020192018
Net sales$1,852 $1,945 $1,981 
Segment profit$109 $127 $169 
% of Net sales5.9 %6.5 %8.5 %
Security net sales decreased $93.2 million, or 5%, in 2020 compared to 2019, as 1% increases in both price and small bolt-on commercial electronic security acquisitions were more than offset by a 5% decrease in volume attributed to the pandemic and a 2% decrease from divestitures. Organic sales for North America declined 3% driven by lower installations within commercial electronic security and automatic doors. Europe declined 4% organically as growth in France and the Nordics was offset by lower volume in the UK related to the pandemic. While customer access and sales were severely impeded by government lockdowns and safety precautions in the first half of 2020, the market and business showed recovery across the second half.
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Segment profit amounted to $108.7 million, or 5.9% of net sales, in 2020 compared to $126.6 million, or 6.5% of net sales, in 2019. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges of $73.5 million and $85.7 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively, segment profit amounted to 9.8% of net sales in 2020 compared to 10.9% in 2019, as price and cost control were more than offset by lower volume from pandemic disruptions and growth investments.

Security net sales increased $35.2 million, or 2%, in 2019 compared to 2018, as 1% increases in both price and small bolt-on commercial electronic security acquisitions were more than offset by a 3% decrease due to foreign currency and a 1% decrease from the sale of the Sargent & Greenleaf business. Organic sales for North America increased 3% driven by increased installations within commercial electronic security and higher volumes in healthcare and automatic doors. Europe declined 1% organically as growth in France was offset by continued market weakness in the Nordics and the UK.

Segment profit amounted to $126.6 million, or 6.5% of net sales, in 2019 compared to $169.3 million, or 8.5% of net sales, in 2018. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges of $85.7 million and $42.2 million in 2019 and 2018, respectively, segment profit amounted to 10.9% of net sales in 2019 compared to 10.7% in 2018, as the benefits of organic growth and a focus on cost containment were partially offset by investments to support the business transformation in commercial electronic security and the dilutive impact from the Sargent & Greenleaf divestiture.

RESTRUCTURING ACTIVITIES
A summary of the restructuring reserve activity from December 28, 2019 to January 2, 2021 is as follows:

(Millions of Dollars)December 28, 2019Net AdditionsUsageCurrencyJanuary 2, 2021
Severance and related costs$140.3 $63.9 $(111.0)$(5.7)$87.5 
Facility closures and asset impairments7.5 19.1 (23.9)— 2.7 
Total$147.8 $83.0 $(134.9)$(5.7)$90.2 

During 2020, the Company recognized net restructuring charges of $83.0 million, primarily related to severance costs associated with a cost reduction program announced in the second quarter of 2020. The Company expects to achieve annual net cost savings of approximately $175 million by the end of 2021 related to restructuring costs incurred during 2020. The majority of the $90.2 million of reserves remaining as of January 2, 2021 is expected to be utilized within the next twelve months.

During 2019, the Company recognized net restructuring charges of $154.1 million, primarily related to severance costs associated with a cost reduction program announced in the third quarter of 2019. The 2019 actions resulted in annual net cost savings of approximately $185 million, primarily in the Tools & Storage segment.

During 2018, the Company recognized net restructuring charges of $160.3 million, which primarily related to a cost reduction program executed in the fourth quarter of 2018. This amount reflected $151.0 million of net severance charges associated with the reduction of 4,184 employees and $9.3 million of facility closure and other restructuring costs. The 2018 actions resulted in annual net cost savings of approximately $230 million, primarily in the Tools & Storage and Security segments.

Segments: The $83 million of net restructuring charges in 2020 includes: $40 million pertaining to the Tools & Storage segment; $29 million pertaining to the Industrial segment; $9 million pertaining to the Security segment; and $5 million pertaining to Corporate.

The anticipated annual net cost savings of approximately $175 million related to the 2020 restructuring actions include: $71 million in the Tools & Storage segment; $61 million in the Industrial segment; $31 million in the Security segment; and $12 million in Corporate.
FINANCIAL CONDITION
Liquidity, Sources and Uses of Capital: The Company’s primary sources of liquidity are cash flows generated from operations and available lines of credit under various credit facilities.

Operating Activities: Cash flows provided by operations were $2.022 billion in 2020 compared to $1.506 billion in 2019. The year-over-year increase was mainly attributable to higher earnings driven by increased demand in the Tools & Storage segment and strong cost control.

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In 2019, cash flows from operations were $1.506 billion compared to $1.261 billion in 2018. The year-over-year increase was mainly attributable to improved working capital (accounts receivable, inventory, accounts payable, and deferred revenue) as a result of an intense focus on working capital management and lower inventory investment associated with Tools & Storage brand roll-outs.

Free Cash Flow: Free cash flow, as defined in the table below, was $1.674 billion in 2020 compared to $1.081 billion in 2019 and $769 million in 2018. The improvement in free cash flow in 2020 was driven by higher operating cash flows as discussed above and lower capital expenditures due to cash preservation initiatives implemented during the year in response to COVID-19 driven market volatility. Management considers free cash flow an important indicator of its liquidity, as well as its ability to fund future growth and provide dividends to shareowners. Free cash flow does not include deductions for mandatory debt service, other borrowing activity, discretionary dividends on the Company’s common and preferred stock and business acquisitions, among other items.
(Millions of Dollars)202020192018
Net cash provided by operating activities$2,022 $1,506 $1,261 
Less: capital and software expenditures(348)(425)(492)
Free cash flow$1,674 $1,081 $769 

As previously discussed, the COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the Company's operations, as well as the operations of its customers, distributors, suppliers and contractors, and has resulted in significant volatility and uncertainty in the markets in which the Company operates. Although the Company experienced a strong demand improvement in the second half of 2020, primarily in its Tools & Storage segment, the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company's business, results of operations, and liquidity remains uncertain. However, the Company continues to believe it is in a strong financial position as of January 2, 2021 and has significant flexibility to navigate this volatile period as the Company: (a) continues to maintain strong investment grade credit ratings; (b) possesses approximately $1.4 billion of cash on-hand as of January 2, 2021; (c) manages a robust and highly-rated $3.0 billion commercial paper program; and (d) carries $3.0 billion of revolving credit facilities backed by a well-capitalized and diverse bank group. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors in Part I of this Form 10-K for further discussion of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Investing Activities: Cash flows used in investing activities totaled $1.577 billion in 2020, driven by business acquisitions of $1.324 billion, net of cash acquired, mainly related to the CAM acquisition, and capital and software expenditures of $348 million.

Cash flows used in investing activities in 2019 totaled $1.209 billion, driven by business acquisitions of $685 million, primarily related to IES Attachments, capital and software expenditures of $425 million and purchases of investments of $261 million, which mainly related to the 20 percent investment in MTD.

Cash flows used in investing activities in 2018 totaled $989 million, primarily due to business acquisitions of $525 million, mainly related to the Nelson acquisition, and capital and software expenditures of $492 million. The increase in capital and software expenditures in 2018 was primarily due to technology-related and capacity investments to support the Company's strong organic growth and its SFS 2.0 initiatives.

Financing Activities: Cash flows provided by financing activities totaled $616 million in 2020 primarily driven by net proceeds from debt issuances of $2.223 billion and $897 million of proceeds from issuances of common stock, partially offset by payments on long-term debt of $1.154 billion, cash dividend payments on common stock of $432 million, net repayments of short-term borrowings of $343 million under the Company's commercial paper program, and a $250 million Craftsman deferred purchase price payment.

Cash flows used in financing activities totaled $293 million in 2019 driven by payments on long-term debt of $1.150 billion and cash dividend payments of $402 million, partially offset by $735 million in net proceeds from the issuance of equity units and net proceeds from debt issuances of $496 million.

Cash flows used in financing activities in 2018 totaled $562 million primarily related to the repurchase of common shares for $527 million and cash dividend payments of $385 million, partially offset by $433 million of net proceeds from short-term
borrowings under the Company's commercial paper program.

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Fluctuations in foreign currency rates positively impacted cash by $23 million in 2020 due to the weakening of the U.S. Dollar against other currencies, while negatively impacting cash by $1 million and $54 million in 2019 and 2018, respectively, due to the strengthening of the U.S. Dollar against the Company's other currencies.

Refer to Note H, Long-Term Debt and Financing Arrangements, and Note J, Capital Stock, for further discussion regarding the Company's debt and equity arrangements.
Credit Ratings and Liquidity:
The Company maintains strong investment grade credit ratings from the major U.S. rating agencies on its senior unsecured debt (S&P A, Fitch A-, Moody's Baa1), as well as its commercial paper program (S&P A-1, Fitch F1, Moody's P-2). In the second quarter of 2020, S&P and Fitch revised their outlooks to ‘negative’ from ‘stable’ in response to the potential negative economic effects stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors in Part I of this Form 10-K for further discussion of the risks associated with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Failure to maintain strong investment grade rating levels could adversely affect the Company’s cost of funds, liquidity and access to capital markets, but would not have an adverse effect on the Company’s ability to access its existing committed credit facilities.

Cash and cash equivalents totaled $1.381 billion as of January 2, 2021, comprised of $1.119 billion in the U.S. and $262 million in foreign jurisdictions. As of December 28, 2019, cash and cash equivalents totaled $298 million, comprised of $57 million in the U.S. and $241 million in foreign jurisdictions.

As a result of the Act, the Company's tax liability related to the one-time transition tax associated with unremitted foreign earnings and profits totaled $325 million at January 2, 2021. The Act permits a U.S. company to elect to pay the net tax liability interest-free over a period of up to eight years. See the Contractual Obligations table below for the estimated amounts due by period. The Company has considered the implications of paying the required one-time transition tax, and believes it will not have a material impact on its liquidity.

The Company has a $3.0 billion commercial paper program which includes Euro denominated borrowings in addition to U.S. Dollars. As of January 2, 2021, the Company had no borrowings outstanding. As of December 28, 2019, the Company had approximately $336 million of borrowings outstanding representing Euro denominated commercial paper, which was designated as a net investment hedge. Refer to Note I, Financial Instruments, for further discussion.

The Company has a five-year $2.0 billion committed credit facility (the “5-Year Credit Agreement”). Borrowings under the 5-Year Credit Agreement may be made in U.S. Dollars, Euros or Pounds Sterling. A sub-limit amount of $653.3 million is designated for swing line advances which may be drawn in Euros pursuant to the terms of the 5-Year Credit Agreement. Borrowings bear interest at a floating rate plus an applicable margin dependent upon the denomination of the borrowing and specific terms of the 5-Year Credit Agreement. The Company must repay all advances under the 5-Year Credit Agreement by the earlier of September 12, 2023 or upon termination. The 5-Year Credit Agreement is designated to be a liquidity back-stop for the Company's $3.0 billion U.S. Dollar and Euro commercial paper program. As of January 2, 2021, and December 28, 2019, the Company had not drawn on its five-year committed credit facility.

In September 2020, the Company terminated its 364-day $1.0 billion committed credit facility and concurrently executed a new 364-Day $1.0 billion committed credit facility (the "364-Day Credit Agreement"). Borrowings under the 364-Day Credit Agreement may be made in U.S. Dollars or Euros and bear interest at a floating rate plus an applicable margin dependent upon the denomination of the borrowing and pursuant to the terms of the 364-Day Credit Agreement. The Company must repay all advances under the 364-Day Credit Agreement by the earlier of September 8, 2021 or upon termination. The Company may, however, convert all advances outstanding upon termination into a term loan that shall be repaid in full no later than the first anniversary of the termination date provided that the Company, among other things, pays a fee to the administrative agent for the account of each lender. The 364-Day Credit Agreement serves as part of the liquidity back-stop for the Company’s $3.0 billion U.S. Dollar and Euro commercial paper program previously discussed. As of January 2, 2021 and December 28, 2019, the Company had not drawn on its 364-Day committed credit facility.

In addition, the Company has other short-term lines of credit that are primarily uncommitted, with numerous banks, aggregating $469 million, of which approximately $373 million was available at January 2, 2021. Short-term arrangements are reviewed annually for renewal.

At January 2, 2021, the aggregate amount of committed and uncommitted lines of credit, long-term and short-term, was approximately $3.5 billion. At January 2, 2021, $2 million was recorded as short-term borrowings relating to amounts outstanding against uncommitted lines. In addition, $96 million of the short-term credit lines was utilized primarily pertaining
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to outstanding letters of credit for which there are no required or reported debt balances. The weighted-average interest rate on U.S. dollar denominated short-term borrowings for 2020 and 2019 were 1.3% and 2.3%, respectively. The weighted-average interest rate on Euro denominated short-term borrowings for 2020 and 2019 were negative 0.2% and 0.3%, respectively.

The Company has an interest coverage covenant that must be maintained to permit continued access to its committed credit facilities described above. The interest coverage ratio tested for covenant compliance compares adjusted Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization to adjusted Interest Expense ("adjusted EBITDA"/"adjusted Interest Expense"). In April 2020, the Company entered into an amendment to its 5-Year Credit Agreement to: (a) amend the definition of Adjusted EBITDA to allow for additional adjustment addbacks, which primarily relate to anticipated incremental charges related to the COVID-19 pandemic, for amounts incurred beginning in the second quarter of 2020 through the second quarter of 2021, and (b) lower the minimum interest coverage ratio from 3.5 to 2.5 times for the period from and including the second quarter of 2020 through the end of fiscal year 2021. These amendments are also applicable to the new 364-Day Credit Agreement described above.

In November 2020, the Company issued $750.0 million of senior unsecured term notes maturing November 15, 2050 ("2050 Term Notes"). The 2050 Term Notes will accrue interest at a fixed rate of 2.75% per annum, with interest payable semi-annually in arrears, and rank equally in right of payment with all of the Company's existing and future unsecured unsubordinated debt. The Company received total net proceeds from this offering of approximately $740 million, net of underwriting expenses and other fees associated with the transaction. The Company used the net proceeds from the offering for general corporate purposes, including repayment of other borrowings.

Contemporaneously with the issuance of the 2050 Term Notes, the Company redeemed the 3.4% senior unsecured term notes due 2021 (“2021 Term Notes”) and the 2.9% senior unsecured term notes due 2022 (“2022 Term Notes”) for approximately $1.2 billion representing the outstanding principal amounts, accrued and unpaid interest, and a make-whole premium. The Company recognized a net pre-tax loss of $47 million from the extinguishment, which was comprised of the $49 million make-whole premium payment and a $2 million loss related to the write-off of deferred financing fees, partially offset by a $4 million gain relating to the write-off of unamortized fair value swap terminations. The Company also recognized a pre-tax loss of $20 million relating to the unamortized loss on cash flow swap terminations related to the 2022 Term Notes. Refer to Note I, Financial Instruments, for further discussion.

In February 2020, the Company issued $750 million of senior unsecured term notes maturing March 15, 2030 ("2030 Term Notes") and $750.0 million of fixed-to-fixed reset rate junior subordinated debentures maturing March 15, 2060 (“2060 Junior Subordinated Debentures”). The 2030 Term Notes accrue interest at a fixed rate of 2.3% per annum, with interest payable semi-annually in arrears, and rank equally in right of payment with all of the Company's existing and future unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The 2060 Junior Subordinated Debentures bear interest at a fixed rate of 4.0% per annum, payable semi-annually in arrears, up to but excluding March 15, 2025. From and including March 15, 2025, the interest rate will be reset for each subsequent five-year reset period equal to the Five-Year Treasury Rate plus 2.657%. The Five-Year Treasury Rate is based on the average yields on actively traded U.S. treasury securities adjusted to constant maturity, for five-year maturities. On each five-year reset date, the 2060 Junior Subordinated Debentures can be called at par value. The 2060 Junior Subordinated Debentures are unsecured and rank subordinate and junior in right of payment to all of the Company’s existing and future senior debt. The Company received total net proceeds from these offerings of approximately $1.483 billion, net of underwriting expenses and other fees associated with the transactions. The net proceeds from the offering were used for general corporate purposes, including acquisition funding.

In December 2019, the Company redeemed all of the outstanding 2052 Junior Subordinated Debentures for approximately $760 million, which represented 100% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest.

In March 2019, the Company issued $500 million of senior unsecured notes maturing on March 1, 2026 ("2026 Term Notes"). The 2026 Term Notes accrue interest at a fixed rate of 3.40% per annum with interest payable semi-annually in arrears. The 2026 Term Notes rank equally in right of payment with all of the Company's existing and future unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The Company received net cash proceeds of $496 million which reflected the notional amount offset by a discount, underwriting expenses, and other fees associated with the transaction. The Company used the net proceeds from the offering for general corporate purposes, including repayment of other borrowings.

In February 2019, the Company redeemed all of the outstanding 2053 Junior Subordinated Debentures for approximately $406 million, which represented 100% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest.

In November 2019, the Company issued 7,500,000 Equity Units with a total notional value of $750 million ("2019 Equity Units"). Each unit has a stated amount of $100 and initially consisted of a three-year forward stock purchase contract ("2022
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Purchase Contracts") for the purchase of a variable number of shares of common stock, on November 15, 2022, for a price of $100, and a 10% beneficial ownership interest in one share of 0% Series D Cumulative Perpetual Convertible Preferred Stock, without par, with a liquidation preference of $1,000 per share ("Series D Preferred Stock"). The Company received approximately $735 million in cash proceeds from the 2019 Equity Units, net of offering expense and underwriting costs and commissions, and issued 750,000 shares of Series D Preferred Stock, recording $750 million in preferred stock. The proceeds were used, together with cash on hand, to redeem the 2052 Junior Subordinated Debentures in December 2019, as discussed above. The Company also used $19 million of the proceeds to enter into capped call transactions utilized to hedge potential economic dilution. On and after November 15, 2022, the Series D Preferred Stock may be converted into common stock at the option of the holder. At the election of the Company, upon conversion, the Company may deliver cash, common stock, or a combination thereof. On or after December 22, 2022, the Company may elect to redeem for cash, all or any portion of the outstanding shares of the Series D Preferred Stock at a redemption price equal to 100% of the liquidation preference, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends. If the Company calls the Series D Preferred Stock for redemption, holders may convert their shares immediately preceding the redemption date. Upon settlement of the 2022 Purchase Contracts, the Company will receive additional cash proceeds of $750 million. The Company pays the holders of the 2022 Purchase Contracts quarterly contract adjustment payments, which commenced February 15, 2020. As of January 2, 2021, the present value of the contract adjustment payments was approximately $76 million.

In March 2018, the Company purchased from a financial institution “at-the-money” capped call options with an approximate term of three years, on 3.2 million shares of its common stock (subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments) for an aggregate premium of $57 million. In February 2020, the Company net-share settled 0.6 million of the 3.2 million capped options on its common stock and received 61,767 shares using an average reference price of $162.26 per common share. On June 9, 2020, the Company amended the 2018 capped call options to align with and offset the potential economic dilution associated with the common shares issuable upon conversion of the remarketed Series C Preferred Stock, as further discussed below. Subsequent to the amendment, the capped call options had an initial lower strike price of $148.34 and an upper strike price of $165.00, which was approximately 30% higher than the closing price of the Company's common stock on June 9, 2020. As of January 2, 2021, due to the customary anti-dilution provisions, the lower and upper strike prices were $148.14 and $164.77, respectively. The aggregate fair value of the options at January 2, 2021 was $53 million.

In May 2017, the Company issued 7,500,000 Equity Units with a total notional value of $750 million ("2017 Equity Units"). Each unit has a stated amount of $100 and initially consisted of a three-year forward stock purchase contract ("2020 Purchase Contracts") for the purchase of a variable number of shares of common stock, on May 15, 2020, for a price of $100, and a 10% beneficial ownership interest in one share of 0% Series C Cumulative Perpetual Convertible Preferred Stock, without par, with a liquidation preference of $1,000 per share ("Series C Preferred Stock"). The Company received approximately $726 million in cash proceeds from the 2017 Equity Units, net of underwriting costs and commissions, before offering expenses, and issued 750,000 shares of Series C Preferred Stock, recording $750 million in preferred stock. The proceeds were used for general corporate purposes, including repayment of short-term borrowings. The Company also used $25 million of the proceeds to enter into capped call transactions utilized to hedge potential economic dilution.

In May 2020, the Company successfully remarketed the Series C Preferred Stock, a described more fully in Note J, Capital Stock. The remarketing generated cash proceeds of $750 million which were applied to settle the holders' stock purchase contract obligations, resulting in the Company issuing 5,463,750 common shares. Holders of the remarketed Series C Preferred Stock are entitled to receive cumulative dividends, if declared by the Board of Directors, at an initial fixed rate equal to 5.0% per annum of the $1,000 per share liquidation preference (equivalent to $50.00 per annum per share). In connection with the remarketing, the conversion rate was reset to 6.7352 shares of the Company's common stock, which is equivalent to a conversion price of approximately $148.47 per share. As of January 2, 2021, due to the customary anti-dilution provisions, the conversion rate was 6.7504, equivalent to a conversion price of approximately $148.14 per share of common stock. Beginning on May 15, 2020, the holders have the option to convert the Series C Preferred Stock into common stock. At the election of the Company, upon conversion, the Company may deliver cash, common stock, or a combination thereof. The Company does not have the right to redeem the Series C Preferred Stock prior to May 15, 2021. At the election of the Company, on or after May 15, 2021, the Company may redeem for cash, all or any portion of the outstanding shares of the Series C Preferred Stock at a redemption price equal to 100% of the liquidation preference, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends. If the Company calls the Series C Preferred Stock for redemption, holders may convert their shares immediately preceding the redemption date.

In March 2015, the Company entered into a forward share purchase contract with a financial institution counterparty for 3,645,510 shares of common stock. The contract obligates the Company to pay $350 million, plus an additional amount related to the forward component of the contract. In February 2020, the Company amended the settlement date to April 2022, or earlier at the Company's option.

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Refer to Note H, Long-Term Debt and Financing Arrangements, and Note J, Capital Stock, for further discussion regarding the Company's debt and equity arrangements.
Contractual Obligations: The following table summarizes the Company’s significant contractual obligations and commitments that impact its liquidity:
Payments Due by Period
(Millions of Dollars)Total20212022-20232024-2025Thereafter
Long-term debt (a)$4,300 $— $— $— $4,300 
Interest payments on long-term debt (b)3,363 161 324 324 2,554 
Short-term borrowings— — — 
Lease obligations599 141 192 118 148 
Inventory purchase commitments (c)545 545 — — — 
Deferred compensation28 25 
Marketing commitments39 27 12 — — 
Derivatives (d)177 174 — — 
Forward stock purchase contract (e)350 — 350 — — 
Pension funding obligations (f)41 41 — — — 
Contract adjustment fees (g)78 39 39 — — 
U.S. income tax (h)325 35 91 197 
Total contractual cash obligations$9,847 $1,166 $1,012 $640 $7,029 
 
(a)Future payments on long-term debt encompass all payments related to aggregate debt maturities, excluding certain fair value adjustments included in long-term debt, as discussed further in Note H, Long-Term Debt and Financing Arrangements.
(b)Future interest payments on long-term debt reflect the applicable interest rate in effect at January 2, 2021.
(c)Inventory purchase commitments primarily consist of open purchase orders to purchase raw materials, components, and sourced products.
(d)Future cash flows on derivative instruments reflect the fair value and accrued interest as of January 2, 2021. The ultimate cash flows on these instruments will differ, perhaps significantly, based on applicable market interest and foreign currency rates at their maturity.
(e)In March 2015, the Company entered into a forward share purchase contract with a financial institution counterparty which obligates the Company to pay $350 million, plus an additional amount related to the forward component of the contract.  In February 2020, the Company amended the settlement date to April 2022, or earlier at the Company's option. See Note J, Capital Stock, for further discussion.
(f)This amount principally represents contributions either required by regulations or laws or, with respect to unfunded plans, necessary to fund current benefits. The Company has not presented estimated pension and post-retirement funding beyond 2021 as funding can vary significantly from year to year based upon changes in the fair value of the plan assets, actuarial assumptions, and curtailment/settlement actions.
(g)These amounts represent future contract adjustment payments to holders of the Company's 2022 Purchase Contracts. See Note J, Capital Stock, for further discussion.
(h)Income tax liability for the one-time deemed repatriation tax on unremitted foreign earnings and profits. See Note Q, Income Taxes, for further discussion.

To the extent the Company can reliably determine when payments will occur, the related amounts will be included in the table above. However, due to the high degree of uncertainty regarding the timing of potential future cash flows associated with the contingent consideration liability related to the Craftsman acquisition and the unrecognized tax liabilities of $187 million and $494 million, respectively, at January 2, 2021, the Company is unable to make a reliable estimate of when (if at all) these amounts may be paid. Refer to Note E, Acquisitions and Investments, Note M, Fair Value Measurements, and Note Q, Income Taxes, for further discussion.

Payments of the above contractual obligations (with the exception of payments related to debt principal, the forward stock purchase contract, contract adjustment fees, and tax obligations) will typically generate a cash tax benefit such that the net cash outflow will be lower than the gross amounts summarized above.
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Other Significant Commercial Commitments:
Amount of Commitment Expirations Per Period
(Millions of Dollars)Total20212022-20232024-2025Thereafter
U.S. lines of credit$3,000 $1,000 $2,000 $— $— 
Short-term borrowings, long-term debt and lines of credit are explained in detail within Note H, Long-Term Debt and Financing Arrangements.
MARKET RISK
Market risk is the potential economic loss that may result from adverse changes in the fair value of financial instruments, currencies, commodities and other items traded in global markets. The Company is exposed to market risk from changes in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates, stock prices, bond prices and commodity prices, amongst others.
Exposure to foreign currency risk results because the Company, through its global businesses, enters into transactions and makes investments denominated in multiple currencies. The Company’s predominant currency exposures are related to the Euro, Canadian Dollar, British Pound, Australian Dollar, Brazilian Real, Argentine Peso, Chinese Renminbi and the Taiwan Dollar. Certain cross-currency trade flows arising from both trade and affiliate sales and purchases are consolidated and netted prior to obtaining risk protection through the use of various derivative financial instruments which may include: purchased basket options, purchased options, collars, cross-currency swaps and currency forwards. The Company is thus able to capitalize on its global positioning by taking advantage of naturally offsetting exposures and portfolio efficiencies to reduce the cost of purchasing derivative protection. At times, the Company also enters into foreign exchange derivative contracts to reduce the earnings and cash flow impacts of non-functional currency denominated receivables and payables, primarily for affiliate transactions. Gains and losses from these hedging instruments offset the gains or losses on the underlying net exposures. Management determines the nature and extent of currency hedging activities, and in certain cases, may elect to allow certain currency exposures to remain un-hedged. The Company may also enter into cross-currency swaps and forward contracts to hedge the net investments in certain subsidiaries and better match the cash flows of operations to debt service requirements. Management estimates the foreign currency impact from its derivative financial instruments outstanding at the end of 2020 would have been an incremental pre-tax loss of approximately $43 million based on a hypothetical 10% adverse movement in all net derivative currency positions. The Company follows risk management policies in executing derivative financial instrument transactions, and does not use such instruments for speculative purposes. The Company generally does not hedge the translation of its non-U.S. dollar earnings in foreign subsidiaries, but may choose to do so in certain instances in future periods.
As mentioned above, the Company routinely has cross-border trade and affiliate flows that cause an impact on earnings from foreign exchange rate movements. The Company is also exposed to currency fluctuation volatility from the translation of foreign earnings into U.S. dollars and the economic impact of foreign currency volatility on monetary assets held in foreign currencies. It is more difficult to quantify the transactional effects from currency fluctuations than the translational effects. Aside from the use of derivative instruments, which may be used to mitigate some of the exposure, transactional effects can potentially be influenced by actions the Company may take. For example, if an exposure occurs from a European entity sourcing product from a U.S. supplier it may be possible to change to a European supplier. Management estimates the combined translational and transactional impact, on pre-tax earnings, of a 10% overall movement in exchange rates is approximately $157 million, or approximately $0.85 per diluted share. In 2020, translational and transactional foreign currency fluctuations negatively impacted pre-tax earnings by approximately $73 million, or approximately $0.40 per diluted share.
The Company’s exposure to interest rate risk results from its outstanding debt and derivative obligations, short-term investments, and derivative financial instruments employed in the management of its debt portfolio. The debt portfolio including both trade and affiliate debt, is managed to achieve capital structure targets and reduce the overall cost of borrowing by using a combination of fixed and floating rate debt as well as interest rate swaps, and cross-currency swaps.